Conditions That Enhance Learning

Conditions That Enhance Learning

CONDITIONS THAT ENHANCE LEARNING

Learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience or being taught. Learning is one of the most fundamental concepts and most researched areas in the domain of psychology.

Learning is the means through which we acquire, not only skills and knowledge, but values, attitudes and emotional reactions as well. Learning can be intentional or unintentional.

Unintentional learning occurs in informal situations as when a student learns a song without setting out to learn it or in the case of child who learns to cry at the sight of any woman on uniform (nurse) because of previous experiences with a nurse.

Intentional learning occurs in the classroom when students are presented with materials or when a student acquires information by looking up a topic in an encyclopedia.

In intentional learning, three basic elements are present; the learner, the activities of both the teacher and pupil and a set goal. The activities are structured in such a way as to provide learning experiences.

There are Conditions that Enhance Learning

They include but not limited to the following.

The Teacher and the Teaching

The teacher’s personality and his methods of teaching facilitate learning. A teacher’s pleasant and friendly personalities are capable of setting student at ease. A teacher who presents the learning materials in an orderly, methodologically, correct manner and shows a clear mastery of his/her subject arouses interest and respect of his students.

Active Participation in Learning as another factor that enhances learning

Students learn better by doing rather than by listening passively. Active participation can take the form of debates, class assignments, sports, drama, oral answering of questions in class and so on.

Knowledge of Progress

Students’ knowledge of their progress which we call “feedback” is an effective form of motivation. The knowledge of progress becomes critical especially when it is positive and encouraging. Teachers need therefore, to mark, grade and furnish students with knowledge of results as soon as possible.

The Learner Must have the Resources to Learn

These resources might be personal, social and technical resources. The personal resources include adequate capacity such as intelligence and temperament to learn the material presented; sufficient prior knowledge and ample motivation to learn. The social resources include support from home and friends while the technical resources consist of finance, materials, equipment and relevant experience. Again, the learner must take advantage of these resources and opportunities.

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This means that the learner has a major role to play in the learning process while the teacher employs different approaches and activities to create a conducive learning environment; the learner actively interacts with the environment and benefits from it.

The Ability and Interest

 Ability and interest must be present to facilitate learning. Health plays an important role in learning. Healthy children learn more effectively than unhealthy children. Children who suffer from malnutrition do not grow well. Stunted growth affects the total development including intellectual powers.

Therefore, the school should always check on students’ health in order to treat those diseases that bother students and reduce their active and effective participation in learning. Furthermore, effective study habits are another factor that enhances learning.

Formation of effective study habits is quite central in facilitating learning. An intelligent child who does not know how to study will often score a ridiculously low grade compared to his potential. Professor Robinson’s method of study (Question, read, survey, recite, and review).

The importance of the learning environment in learning cannot be over emphasized since learning takes place in an environment. The social psychology of a leaning environment is characterized by friendliness among teacher, a warm relationship between students and teachers, respect for one another, the use of decent language in formal and informal interaction between staff and the students, emphatic considerations for problem children and those experiencing difficulties, etc.

Denigration, abuse and mockery are inimical to ta peaceful co-existence among human beings. If teachers and students mind their language and show respect for one another, the environment will be congenial and conducive to learning.

In conclusion, learning should be geared towards solving real problems in life, such as poor social adjustment, teacher-student conflict, and hostility in the classroom amongst others.


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The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

Introduction

Justice in philosophy, is the concept of the proper proportion between a person’s deserts (what is merited) and the good and bad things that befall or are allotted to him or her. Aristotle’s discussion of the virtue of justice has been the starting point for almost all Western accounts.

For him (Aristotle), the key elements of justice is treating like cases alike, an idea that has set later thinkers the task of working out which similarities (need, desert, talent) are relevant.Aristotle distinguishes between justice in the distribution of wealth or other goods (distributive justice) and justice in reparation, as, for example, in punishing someone for a wrong he has done (retributive justice).

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Through the instrumentality of law regulated by the state, the concept of justice in philosophy of law became dearer. As the law grew and developed the concept of justice walked parallel and expanded its tentacles into different spheres of human activities. The essence of legal justice lies in ensuring uniformity and certainty of law and at the same time ensuring the rights and duties duly respected by all.

The notion of justice is the impartiality imbibed in it. The violation of justice which is enforced by the law results in state sanction as ‘punishment’.The concept of the justice is as old as the origin and growth of human society. A man living in society desires peace and, while living in, he tends to experience a conflict of interests and expects a rightful conduct on the others part. 

Comprehensive Definition of Justice

Starting with the origin of justice, the English word “Justice” derives from the Latin “justitia” meaning righteousness or equity. The Roman goddess of justice portrayed as a blind-folded woman with a sword in one hand and a pair of scales of justice in the other has a more complicated derivation.

The earlier versions of justice had an implication of propriety and everything in its place and are best summed up in Tennyson’s single line – Gods in heaven and all right with the world.

Justice in philosophy of law is the quality of being just; Righteousness equitableness, or moral rightness; to uphold the justice of a cause. It is the moral principle determining just conduct. It is the administering of deserved punishment or reward. The maintenance or administration of what is just by law, as by judicial or other proceedings; a court of justice. Justice in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that which is just and the philosophical discussion of that which is just.

The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness. The concept of justice differs in every culture.

Early theories of Justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work the Republic, and Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. Throughout history, various theories have been established.

The word justice meaning ‘the exercise of authority in vindication of right by assigning reward or punishment is over 860 years old (c. 1140 AD). Justice is defined as just behavior or treatment. Justice is rendering to everyone that which is his due.Justice is a very interesting thing; the desire for justice is often felt only when an injustice actually happen. Indeed, if it were not for the existence of injustices, we wouldn’t have a need for justice in the first place. Justice depends upon a perpetual flow of victims. It there are no victims, then no justice is necessary.

It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, while justice mean merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.

The Notion of Justice by Some Philosophers

Plato‘s Notion of Justice

The notion of Justice has been treated by many other philosophers. Starting with an ancient philosopher Plato (348/347 BC), in his philosophy, he gives a prominent place to the idea of justice. Plato was highly dissatisfied with the prevailing degenerating conditions in Athens.

The Athenian democracy was on the verge of rain and was ultimately responsible for Socrates’s death. The amateur meddlesomeness and excessive individualism because main targets of Plato’s attack. This attack came in the form of the construction of an ideal society in which justice reigned supreme, since Plato believed justice to be the remedy for curing these evils.

After criticizing the conventional theories of justice presented by Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus and Claucon, Plato gives his own theory of justice according to which individually, justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a person self-consitent and good; socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.

Plato says that Justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole – individual as well as social.Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society. It is the identical quality that makes good and social. Justice is an order and duty.

John Rawls Notion of Justice

John Rawls (1921 – 2002) was an American political philosopher in the liberal tradition. His theory of justice as fairness describes a society of free citizens holding equal basic rights and cooperating within an egalitarian economic system. Rawls constructs justice as fairness around specific interpretations at the ideas that citizens are free and equal and that society should be fair.

He sees it as resolving the tensions between the ideas of freedom and equality, which have been highlighted both by the socialist critique of liberal democracy and the conservative critique of the modern welfare state.

Rawls holds that justice as fairness is the most egalitarian, and also the most plausible, interpretation of these fundamental concepts of liberalism. He also argues that justice as fairness provides a superior understanding of justice to that of the dominant tradition in modern political thought: utilitarianism.

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Rawls makes his final clarification on the principles of justice in one paragraph:Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. 

First Principle: Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. 

Second Principle: Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.”

The Oxford English Dictionary defines the ‘just’ person as one who typically “does what is morally ‘right’ and is disposed to ‘giving everyone his or her due’, offering the word ‘fair’ as a synonym.

The word comes from the Latin ‘Jus’, meaning right or law. But philosophers want to get beyond etymology and dictionary definitions to consider, for example, the nature of justice as both a moral virtue of character and a desirable quality of political society, as well as how it applies to ethical and social decision making. We have seen the theory of Plato and contemporary philosopher Rawls.


St. Augustine’s Notion of Justice

St. Augustine (354 – 430 AD) a medieval philosopher was born and raised in the Roman Province of North Africa, during his life, he experienced the injustices, the corruption, and the erosion of the Roman Empire. His conception of Justice is the familiar one of “the virtue by which all people are given their due”.

Aquinas theory of justice is also quite compatible with Augustine’s. He offers us an Aristotelian definition, maintaining that ‘justice is a habit whereby a man renders to each one his due by a constant and perpetual will’.

He sees justice as a moral habit of a virtuous character what specifically distinguishes it from other moral virtue is that by justice, a person is consistently committed to respecting the rights of others overtime. Aquinas considers justice to be preeminent among the moral values.

Immanuel Kant’s Theory of Justice

Kant’s theory of justice is seen clearly in his metaphysical elements of justice, which constitutes the first part of his metaphysics of morals, Kant develops his theory of justice. For Kant, justice is inextricably bound up with obligations with which we can rightly be required to comply.

According to Kant, there is only one innate human right possessed by all persons, that is the right freely to do what one wills, so long as that is ‘compatible with the freedom of every one else in accordance with a universal law’.

Thus one person’s right freely to act cannot extend to infringing on the freedom of others or the violation of their rights. This leads to Kant’s ultimate universal principle of justice.

Notion of Justice in Aristotle’s Ethics

Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) is an ancient philosopher who lived and contributed immensely to the Golden age of philosophy. He towers over the history of philosophy having made fundamental contributions and impacts in many fields, among them are logic, metaphysics, physics, biology, ethics, rhetoric, poetics, and politics.

His thoughts and political teachings are evident in practical works, basically in his major books, Nicomachean Ethics, Rhetoric and Politics.

These works are not straightforward scientific treatises, because we pursue practical sciences not simply for the sake of knowledge, as we do the theoretical ones, but also for the sake of the benefits derived from them.

The term ‘just’, as used by Aristotle, has two separate meanings; in its first meaning it is principally used to describe a conduct in agreement with the ‘law’, a conduct, therefore, which conforms to an established, authoritative rule of human conduct; in short, it is used to describe a conduct which conforms to whatever constitutes an authoritative instrument of social and moral control.

In this sense justice denotes a ‘moral disposition which renders men apt to do just things and which causes them to act justly and to wish what is just’. It refers primarily to the application of observance of certain authoritative rules of human conduct and should, consequently, rather be called the virtue of ‘righteousness’ or of ‘moral justice’ (a virtue displayed towards others, a social virtue).

In its second meaning, justice signifies equality, or , to be exact, a ‘fear mean’ it is this second meaning of ‘justice” in the narrower sense in which we are primarily interested, since it constitutes that concept by means of which the law in action, and not merely the moral conduct of man can be more specifically evaluated.

In order to make clear the distinction between ‘justice according to an authoritative rule

 And equality, Aristotle states that a person whose conduct is ‘unjust’, who acts contrary to certain moral principles, and therefore, lacks virtue, is not necessarily unjust as far as the principle of Equality is concerned: that is to say, ‘ he need not be one who has or claims more than his fair due’.

Justice in the sense of equality has to do with eternal and commensurable things; it is concerned with the proportionate ratio of commensurable goods. Thus, a ‘just’ wage is a wage proportionate to the type and amount of labor invested, it is one which is neither too great not too little (disproportionate), but midway between the two extremes.

Similarly, a just law is the idea mean between the two extremes of defect and excess. Justice or the ‘just in the sense of moral virtue is determined by the authoritative rule or rules of human conduct, while justice, in the sense of “proportionate fairness” is founded on the principle of Equality.

This parallelism of “moral justice” and equality raises many difficult questions, particularly as regards the relation of these two terms. It is not permissible to assume that equality alone constitutes the basis of all “legal justice”, since Aristotle himself makes the definite assertion that the common welfare of a politically organized society depends primarily upon “moral justice”, which alone preserves happiness.

Nor, on the other hand, does “moral justice”, as a general virtue, hold a rank superior to that of equality. It cannot, therefore, be made use of to define, modify, or compliment the principle of Equality.

Relationship Between Moral Justice and Equity in Aristotle

Aristotle explains the relations of ‘moral justice’ and equality by pointing out that equality is related to “moral justice” in the same way as the part is related to the whole.

Moral justice and equality are not two co-extensive terms. In order to illustrate this particular relationship he adds that not everything which runs counter to the notion of ‘moral justice’ also runs counter to the principle of equality, while whatever runs counter to the principle of equality also runs counter to the notion of moral justice.

In other words, every infraction of the principle of “justice in the wider sense” (Equality) constitutes an infraction of the principle of “justice in the wider sense (moral justice), while not every infraction of the principle of “moral justice” implies an infraction of the principle of equality.

By this, one might be led to believe that “Equality”, as used by Aristotle, is merely one particular moral concept among others.

A particular aspect of general moral justice such is not the case, however, for Aristotle’s very definition of the term ‘Equality’ shows it to be a principle of the most particular nature, and not merely a derivative aspect of the principle of moral justice.

The principle of equality not only creates a definite moral criterion for the administration of human conduct, but also becomes actual in and through the principle of moral justice. At the same time, the principle of moral justice unfolds and manifests itself in the different forms of Equality.

In fact, the principle of equality is essential to a complete understanding of the full implication and significance of the principle of moral justice, the more so, since it constitutes a vital part or element of that principle namely, one form in which moral justice is manifested while moral justice as such expresses the fullness of what is called “righteous” or “justice” is, in its ultimate meaning and content, but the ideal coincidence of human conduct with certain authoritative moral rules, while equality is one of the forms in which this virtue appears.

Only now are we able not only to appreciate Aristotle’s reason for conceiving of two types justice which, though separate and distinct, are nevertheless grounded in the same genus, but also to understand why he makes two separate inquiries into the nature of justice.

While there exists but one universal concept of the ‘just’, it is simultaneously from two direction of the principle of equality.The just is the same, in both instances, although the particular forms in which justice is administered as formulated the ‘modes’ of justice are separate.

For instance, if a man display certain vices, such as throwing away his shield from cowardice or using vile language from bad temper, one might assume that his actions were prompted by a wish to avoid bearing his fair share of the burden of evil and thus, since to aspire to deficiency of proportionate evil is a violation of the principle of equity, that he had been guilty of an ‘injustice in the narrow sense’.

But since these examples of ‘vice’ are meant to describe a conduct motivated primarily by cowardice, ill temper, and the like, and not so much by the desire for disproportionate gain, the principle violated is seen to that of moral justice.

The illustration shows that our moral evaluation of an action depends upon our view point, that is to say, upon whether we examine such an action as regards its relation to an authoritatively established rule of conduct, whether we consider it in the light of its manifest affects upon others and its particular motivation, or whether we evaluate it by the criterion or whether it exceeds or falls short of that ‘mean’ which is expressed by the principle of equality and which is concerned with the proportionate ration of commensurable goods.

Justice is a virtue, the most difficult of all virtues which differs from all other virtues in that it displayed towards others and not towards oneself. It is the most perfect virtue because it does what is to the advantage of another.

Aristotle’s Ethics

The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle’s best-known work on ethics. The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consist of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum.

The little is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus, to whom the work was dedicated. The theme of the work is a Socratic questions previously explored in the works of Plato, Aristotle’s friend and teacher of law men should best live. Ethics by Aristotle, is practical rather than theoretical.

In other words, it is not only a contemplation about good living, because it also aims to create good living. Ethics is about how individuals should best live. Aristotle aimed for ethics to be both an intellectual and a practical pursuit, with the ultimate goal of human well-being and happiness. He believed that being revised well and developing virtuous habits could help a person to live well.

Aristotle also discusses the relationship between the Nicomachean Ethics to the Eudemonian ethics and the magna moralia. It is interested to note that the book V (that concerning justice), VI and VII of the Nicomachean ethics belong also to the Eudemian ethics.


Conclusion

Having viewed the notion of justice in Aristotle’s Ethics, one could deduce that it is necessary for citizens to obey the law in order to be just. Although, civil law itself can be unjust in the sense of being unfair to some, so there is a need to consider special justice as a function of fairness like all moral virtues, for Aristotle, Justice is a rational mean between bad extremes.

The notion of community and the common good play a central role in Aristotle’s theory of justice. In both the Eudemon and the Nicomachean Ethics as well as the politics, standards of justice are understood in terms of what is required for the achievement of the goods that bring people together to co-operate for their mutual benefit. Hence, justice is equality or fairness in distributions and exchange.

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Bibliography

Anto-Hermann Chroust and David L. Oshorn, Aristotle’s Conception of Justice, 17 Notre Dame 2. Rev. 129 (1942).

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans Terence twin, Second Edition (called “Nicomachean”) Indianaplolis, Hackett 1999.

Aristotle, “Politica” 1287 a 18. The English term “norm” – what is right and just by an established convention.

Christoph Horn, “Law, Governance, and Political Obligation” Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Curzer, H. Aristotle, the Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

David Johnson, A Brief History of Justice, First edition.

Great, A. The Ethics of Aristotle, 3rd London: Longmans, Green, and co, 1874.

Irwin, T. Plato’s Ethics, Oxford University Press, 1995.

John Arthur and William H. Shaw, ed., Justice and Economic Distribution. Englewood (LIffs, M): Prentice Hall, 1978.   

John Rawls Influential book “A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971).

John Rawls, Political Liberalism (called “liberalism”) New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Keyt D. Aristotle’s Theory of Distributive Justice, in Keyt, D. and Aniller, E. D. (eds). A Companion to Aristotle’s politics, 238-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Marcia Homiak, “Virtue and Self-Love in Aristotle’s Ethics”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy. (1981).

Richard Kraut: Interpretation on Aritotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2013).

Ronald Polansky, ompanion to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, ed (Cambridge University Press 2014).

Young, C. D, “Aristotle’s Justice” in Richard Kraut (ed), The Backwell Guide to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 179-78. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

Lingard M. “The Conceptual Unity of Friendship in the Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics: Apeiron 48 . 2 (2015), 195 – 219.


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A Lawa A Hara : The Philosophy of Vanity of Uche Ogbuagu

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A Lawa A Hara : The Philosophy of Vanity of Uche Ogbuagu

A Lawa A Hara : The Philosophy of Vanity of Uche Ogbuagu

The Philosophy of Vanity 

A lawa a hara:

Sometimes, just sometimes, it is good to remind people of things they already know. It is not a waste of time nor is it a fruitless search; a wild goose chase, rather it is an act which we should do often because it is in man’s nature to forget things so easily. And it is our duty to remind each and every one of us that we are on a pilgrimage. – The Philosophy of Vanity – 

We must learn from everyday activities and I have learnt from previous experiences that the more luggage a traveler has, the more difficult the journey. Most often we find people who are stranded because they cannot flag down a cab to carry their mighty luggage.

The people who have few bags simply cross over to the other side and continue on their journey. The excesses which slow people’s progress, as our travelers, are often irrelevant and that is VANITY!

In the opening lines of his audio release, what people may call comedy (of which I take exception to), Monsieur Uche Ogbuagu, maintained and argued that if only people were aware of how fast and quick every moment is and how what we think lasts forever are lost in a blink of an eye; then he would not take much of our time nor would he even bother making an audio concerning our passing nature.

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As was expected, the principle of double effect played itself out. While some accused the honorable gentleman, Uche Ogbuagu, of being too political and using the medium to say ill of a sitting governor, others lauded him and praised his effort to call us back to our roots. These reactions are because of the perception people got.

For a few, Uche Ogbuagu was standing on a podium of politics, for the rest, he was standing on a pavilion of liberalism. Howbeit, I have borrowed a leaf from the vanity philosophy of Uche Igbuagu, and as I am standing on the ground of education, one prays that the criticisms be rational, in the least.

As reasoning and thinking people, we all have our different philosophies. For his vanity philosophy, Uche Ogbuagu calls it a lawa a hara which in translation means at the time of our exit/departure, nothing is taken.

I have carefully examined this philosophy and arrived at another dimension one could view it from.

Contrary to the departure connotation, I extend the meaning to Legacy. One can then from this; ala waa aha ra when the ground opens, name subsists.  This is an intellectual replay of what happens in one’s life. The name, good name, one makes for himself/herself, according to Uche Ogbuagu is what persists perennially.

In the light of this reason then, our ephemeral nature should always be our concern, for we ought to preoccupy our minds with the thought of vanity and nothingness of our existence.

In fact, our passing and fading nature is a cosmic degree, conferred on us by necessity. For while we present thesis, dissertations to earn doctorate and first degrees, we then become qualified to attach these honorary degrees of vanity given to us by nature, having passed the examination of coming-into-being.

Hence, one then attaches it to the list of titles which appear after his/her name.

I would then write Gaetan Dolores, V.A.A, PhD, M.A, GCFR, Dip.Th, B.Tech etc , where the V.A.A means VANISHING AFTER ALL. It is also clear to see that V.A.A becomes the first to come before the others – the very first we earn! This goes a long way to console people who are demoralized and feel neglected that they cannot get their other degrees and titles (Ph.D, G.C.F.R, B.Phil, LSM etc); for there is one degree conferred on all of us by the education of life, which we all share.

May the discourse on vanity no longer be held in conclaves! May we rise to the hills and herald this consciousness that we may take it to all the nations and peoples!

As Christ’s love compelled Paul (2 Cor 5:14), so will the consciousness of this fact compel us to share and extend love; to heal the world and make it a better place (Michael Jackson), to do unto others as we would have them do unto us (Golden Rule), to not pay a tooth for a tooth nor an eye for an eye- which would make the whole world blind (Mahatma Gandhi); to love one another as we love ourselves (Matt 19:19); to lean on each other and swallow our pride (Michael Bolton); to talk about love for it is all we need (Celine Dion).

What About these Practical Experiences?

Using his childhood experiences, Uche Ogbuagu reminds us all that these material things which we hold in high regard would be things of the past tomorrow.

Come to think of it, who would believe that the SIM card would later be bought, at worst N100 and at best FREE! I myself, born in the 90’s witnessed how the SIM card saga divided the society into SIMFULL and SIMLESS- the bourgeois belonging to the former and the peasants to the latter (I do not wish to talk about getting a telephone those days because one literally had to sell half of his/her piece of land before getting one).

But today, the telephone network companies now send agents to stand at our school gates begging us to take one of their SIM cards and sometimes, forcefully thrusting them into our pockets.

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They have also hired dancers too, who shamelessly dance on the streets so as to attract us to be able to force these SIM cards into our hands.

A Passing World!

What about those times when we had thought that the automobile, fondly called Beetle because of its shape, was the best among peers – primus inter pares! One would stare and stare again until the Beetle with its tuk tuk tuk tuk tuk tuk tuk sound of the revving engine would drive by, in fact passes away – and away did it literally pass!

But today we see Ferrari, Bentley, Venza, Lamborghini- even private jets- something not previously thought possible. Yet we must be wary that these things do not last.

No matter how rich and famous and beautiful one is, he/she must know that here have been people before him/her, whom were richer, more famous and more beautiful that had once existed before him/her.

Many poor people think that if only they had money, they would be happy. Howard Hughes was the richest man in the world when he was only forty-five years old. Twenty years later, at sixty-five, he still had all his money but was probably the world’s most miserable man.

He had retreated from the society, living in a small dark room in hotels, keeping all the sun out. He was dirty, his beard had grown down to his waist and his hair fell down his back.

His fingernails were two inches long. His huge body had shrunk to nothing (introduction to the book of Ecclesiastes- The Family Devotional Bible)

What Happens Upon Death?

Pay attention let me tell you what will happen upon your death – yes you will one day die. These things which I am about to narrate will happen to anyone who is lucky to die a peaceful death or rather a less painful death (and has the best relatives) else the person meets death in the most bizarre circumstances that do not have the favor/ grace of receiving  these treatments.

First, the doctor would shake his/her head that you have gone (sympathetic doctors and not the ones who see you as a mere biological organism), and then the mortician would try to make you still appear beautiful.

If any religion accepts your corpse, then a funeral service is held in your honor. Two hours or three, the service is over and soon you are lowered into an already dug grave- you alone, in your beautiful dress and so beautiful. A day or two, you still retain your freshness.

Four days or five, the maggots sprout- devouring all, not minding or inquiring if you were beautiful in life or not. A few weeks more, more maggots appear. In a matter of some few weeks more, you are completely devoured. So, tell me, why do you boast?

Read again do you see where I wrote that your bars of gold would or private jet or your mansions will be placed at your side? If you think these processes to be too disgusting and opt for cremation, you are reduced to the most relegated substance- ash!- in a matter of minutes. Either way, you are forgotten even before the cremation process is completed.

There is really nothing to worry about.

There is really no reason to let ephemeral things blind our eyes to the ways of good. Write these words in your hearts, write them on the very surfaces you see everyday – the words of Uche Ogbuagu that the world is just fleeting and passing. Everything is A LAWA A HARA!


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I Was Asked To Sit by the Corner But I Never Gave Up

YOU HAVE NO REASON TO GIVE UP In this photo was George Mclaurin the first black man admitted to the University of Oklahoma in was forced to sit in the

Breaking Free From The Strongholds Of Your Past

Breaking Free From The Strongholds Of Your Past

Breaking Free From The Strongholds Of Your Past

It is startling but true: The decisions we make today don’t simply affect ourselves; they affect our children’s children for multiplied generations. -Breaking free from the strongholds –

The scripture talks about how the iniquities of the fathers can be passed down for three or four generations.

That means bad habits, addictions, negativity, wrong mind-sets and other types of iniquities can be passed down.

Perhaps you are struggling in certain areas right now because people who came before you made poor choices.

Many times, you can look back and see the results of those choices somewhere in your family line.

It is important that we recognize what has happened and that we not passively accept these negative patterns.

‘’Well, this is just the way I am.

This poverty and sickness has been in my family for ‘’

No, you need to rise up and do something.

It may have been there for years, but the good news is it doesn’t have to say stay there.

You can be the one to put a stop to it.

You can be the one to choose the blessings and not the curse.

Recent research seeks to identify specific genes and determine how genes for traits such as addiction, eating disorders, even depression, are passed down.

The researchers can see definite patterns, but they cannot conclusively determine whether the cause is genetic, environmental, or hereditary, or some combination of those factors.

Understand, if you are struggling with one or more of these things, that does not make you a bad person.

You need not mope around guilty and condemned because you have some obstacles to overcome.

Many times, it may not even be your fault.

Somebody else made the poor choices, and now you have to deal with the repercussions.

Nevertheless, be careful that you don’t use that as an excuse to perpetuate negative lifestyle patterns.

You have to dig your heels in and do something about it.

Attention Please!

Your Daily Decisions Matter A Lot.
The decisions we make today don’t simply affect us; they affect our children’s children for multiplied generations.

Make Wise Decisions Today & Save your Future Generation;

Share to Loved Ones.


Political Thought – A Complete Guide

Political Thought – A Complete Guide

Political Thought – Nature, History and Characteristics

Political thought can simply be defined as thinking. Many people define political thought as “a disciplined investigation of political problems, while some others define political thought as a systematic thinking about the purpose of government. Political thought is nothing but thought about the state, what it means, its nature and structure, its purpose and function. The raison deters how best it should be organized and administered.

Nature of Political Thought

Political thought came up through deduction and induction. Deduction can be seen as value judgment, idealistic and speculative imagination. It reflects a way of thinking or attitude of a people. The goal of deductive political thought is to lay down values, standards to which all political institutions practices should conform.

Induction is empirical in the sense that thoughts about politics were scanty and lacking in articulation. They existed in the form of proverbs songs and idiom. Political thought is descriptive when it attempts an analysis of existing political system. It is also prescriptive when it advocates specific forms of political action.

Classification of History of Political Thought

The classification of history of political thought are based on the following historical periods.

  1. The Political Thought of the Ancient World:

This studies the political ideas and values of the ancient political civilization of the classical era. The thinkers and philosophers of this period are, the sophists, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Hellenic and Hellenistic philosophical schools.

  1. The Medieval Political Thought

This studies the political ideas, theories and values of the early Christian times. Thinkers in this medieval era are St. Augustine (354AD – 430AD) and St. Thomas Aquinas (1225AD – 1274AD).

  • The Political Thought of the Renaissance Period

This was a period of rebirth of the human spirited-dawned in the 14th Century. Nicollo Machiavelli (1469 – 1627) was the thinker at the centre stage of this political era.

  1. The Political Thought of the Post-Renaissance Era

The theory of social contract become significant in this period. Two forms of theory are found in the era which are, the governmental contract and the social contract proper. The social contract theorists are Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1619), John Locke (1632 – 1704) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778).

  1. The Enlightenment Period

These are the contemporary political thinkers which include Edmund Burke, Jeremy Bentham, J. S. Mill, Ferderich George Hegel, Karl Marx etc.

Significance of Political Thought

  1. History of political thought enables us to study the writings of great thinkers who have exercised great influence on human mind through different periods of history.
  2. It teaches us to understand socio-political change, the evolution of political institutions and ideas and the shaping of various structures of political society.
  3. It enables us to understand the political civilizations and their contributions to the origin and growth of the civil society.
  4. It helps to solve present day political problems by looking for ideas which solved similar problems in the past.

The Genesis of Political Thought

Political thought started as soon as man came together to live, as social animals. It was during the time of the ancient Greeks that systematized thinking about politics began. It was among the ancient Greeks that we got the first group of people who devoted time to reflect on the basic issue of the state, that posed fundamental questions and gave answers about man and his relationship with the state. It was the ancient Greek that produced Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.

The Greek Society:  The Characteristics of the Greeks

The Greek lived in small cities called polis – a city possessing common habits, military strength, a myth of its origins, its own god and religion and citizens. It was not by accident that the Greeks became the authors and originators of political philosophy. They became great as thinkers and philosophers because, they were very curious people, they were seekers after unknown truths.

The Greeks also had great faith in reason, they had great instinct for criticism of everything including themselves. The Greeks were also great humanities to crown the Greek attributes was the polis, their unique political organization.

The Contribution of the Greek in the Development of Political Thought

  1. The capacity to reason and understanding nature.
  2. The Greek created both civic politics and political freedom.
  3. The Greek Democratic Experience was emergence of political thought.
  4. A humanistic attitude towards life.
I Was Asked To Sit by the Corner But I Never Gave Up

I Was Asked To Sit by the Corner But I Never Gave Up

YOU HAVE NO REASON TO GIVE UP

In this photo was George Mclaurin, the first black man admitted to the University of Oklahoma in 1948, was forced to sit in the corner far from his white classmates. – never give up –

But his name remains on the honor roll as one of the three best students of the university.

These are his words.”Some colleagues would look at me like I was an animal, no one would give me a word, the teachers seemed like they were not even there for me, nor did they always take my questions when I asked.

But I devoted myself so much that afterwards, they began to look for me to give them explanation and to clear their questions.

Later came out as the best as they all had no reason to become humbled before him including the teachers.

Note: You have no reason to give up.

They may look down on you today, they may not support your goals or dreams, they may laugh or segregate you today, but never stop believing and striving towards your dreams.

Keep believing in the beauty of your dreams and forge on.

Ignore the Naysayers, they will surely be humbled at what you will later turn out to be.

There’s no limit to what you can achieve.

Let this motivate you Also do so by sharing to others.


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