It Wasn’t Suicide; they Killed Him

It Wasn’t Suicide; they Killed Him

Suicide & its Rampant Practice 

Suicide amongst youths and young adults has been on the increase. In Nigeria where taking one’s life is seen as a taboo and curse, the option to snuff the life out oneself is becoming a worrisome trend, especially with reoccurring cases cut across students in tertiary institutions, young and energetic rural farmers among other groups of people.

The world Health Organization (WHO), published that an average of 3,000 people commit suicide daily all over the world and for every person who completes, 20 or more may attempt to end their lives making it the third leading cause of death among the youths aged 15- 44 in the world.

Nigeria is a highly volatile country where hardships are a part of everyday life. A significant number of Nigerians live below the minimum wage of #18.000. Sadly, while hardships lead to depression, other subtle un-diagnosed like chemical imbalance are also vehicle for depression.

According to research, it has been established that most youths resort to suicide as well as a result of poor academic performance; pressure from parents who compare their children with others and sometimes making them feel inferior or worthless; pressure from social media.

Depression

Everyone feels down at times. The breakup of a relationship or a bad grade can lead to low mood. Sometimes sadness comes on for no apparent reasons. Is there any difference between these shifting moods and what is called depression?

Anyone who has experienced an episode ordinary unhappiness is characterized by longer and deeper feelings of despondency and the presence of certain characteristic symptoms. There are growing evidences that depression is in part an illness with a biological basis.

It is more common in individuals with close relatives who have been depressed. Research on the physiology of the nervous system suggests that the level of activity of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, changes in longstanding depression: Anti-depression medicines probably work by correcting a “Chemical imbalance” of this kind.

The loss of a loved one or a disappointment may trigger a depression; past losses, perhaps not fully acknowledged, often make someone more vulnerable to depression.

Suicide

As the second leading cause of death in young people, a major cause of suicide is mental illness, very commonly depression. People who feel suicidal are overwhelmed by painful emotions and see death as the only way out, losing sight of the fact that suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary state.

Most people who die in suicide could have been saved or helped. How they Killed him: “People who talk about it won’t do it.” Suicide threats should always be taken seriously. The truth is that few individuals are single – minded in their decision to kill themselves; many are asking for help even as they contemplate suicide.

“Suicide is a purely personal decision” This argument is sometimes used to justify a ‘hands-off’ attitude. It is a misconception, because suicide doesn’t just affect the person who dies; it affect the society at large, and causes under development. “People who want to kill themselves are beyond help” Fortunately, this is not the case suicidal impulses may be intense but short-lived.

The majority of individuals who are suicidal even for extended periods recover and can benefit from treatment. Symptoms of suicide; a person who is experiencing or could experience suicidal thoughts may show the following signs or symptoms.

Symptoms of Suicide

  • Feeling or appearing to feel trapped or hopeless.
  • Feeling intolerable emotional pain.
  • Having or appearing to have an abnormal preoccupation with violence, dying or death.
  • Talking about revenge, guilt or shame.
  • Consuming drugs or more alcohol than usual, or starting drinking when they had not previously done.
  • Increased Isolation.
  • Talking about suicide or dying, expressing regret about being alive or ever having been born.

A significant number of people with suicidal ideation keep their thoughts and feelings a secret and show no signs that anything us wrong. Suicidal Ideation can occur when a person feels they are no longer able to cope with an overwhelming situation.

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This could stem from financial problems!s, death of a loved on, a broke relationship, or a devastating or deliberating illness. The most common situation or life events that might cause suicidal thoughts are grief, sexual abuse, financial problems, remorse, rejection, a relationship breakup and unemployment.

Sometimes, economic hardship can lead to suicide; shame , ignominy and disgrace can be spontaneous . For some it is immediate reaction not as a result of depression. For others , it is depression after a long time of experiencing hardship , they lose focus, and some hang themselves , some take over dosage of drugs, plunged into lagoon .

Whatever it is, termination of one ’ s life is not good . It is not something that should be encouraged. So , we want to provide hope and tell people a sad , traumatic experience is not necessarily the end of life . Ultimately we want to create a point, a facility where does who are going through mental health will come for a chat .

It is strictly a place you come and exchange views and you will be advised and by the time you are sufficiently advised and counselled if you need to see a psychiatrist then we set up meeting. We begin to get funds from sources so that we support those going through this crisis because the anti depressants is not cheap , people do not have the money so family will lock up the person and chain the person in the house some are boxed back to the village.

These situations do not need to arise, the one of among teenagers are terrible, and it is a traumatic experience for the parents. Those who commit suicide have ended the problem for themselves but created problems for others .

Often some people who have terminal diseases tend to take their life because they cannot go through the trauma and when they do this it can never be announced because suicide is not an honorable thing in the society .

In Africa it ’s an abomination , in Nigeria it is a legal offence , anybody who attempts suicide and is caught is prosecuted that is one thing we want to do. We want to ask for that aspect of the law to be expunged.

The man who commits suicide is not a happy person , he needs help , why punish the person by sending him to jail . That is double jeopardy, and these are some of the issues we are dealing with.

Part of our advocacy is that these homes will not be called psychiatric homes anymore there are some mild names for it like Social Intervention Facility so that you can go there and get help . Stigmatization of mental illness is all over the world but higher in Africa. Some who are going through illness along the line they become mentally ill .

They suffer from delusions , paranoia fear and terrible dreams . Some when they age they begin to suffer from dementia. We are looking at suicide and depression and asking what the society can do to intervene and reduce the rate of suicide.

Some people who are successful in life , some are wealthy they now begin to suffer from psychological imbalance; something begins to disturb their mind. It may not be something physical or real but the mind is diseased. Go to the specialist to treat the mind it is not only poverty that causes mental health.

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It is something that affects the mind, sometimes it has to be body chemistry ; sometimes it could be a fear of losing the wealth. Some people made so much money that they are now afraid of the door . They cannot open the door . Some have become so rich they can ’ t step out of the house after 7 : 00 pm.

They cannot eat out. The relations cannot visit ; if they visit they do not stay long. When you enter your office you see a sheet of paper somewhere and say who brought this . There are different things that lead to depression and mental health issues . As human being many things can happen to you and make you sad or happy .

Cause of depression is perpetual stage of sadness; it is continues you no longer feel happy you are not excited about anything . It lingers so there are other symptoms, lack of interest , you avoid people, sleep disturbance , no self -confidence, lose interest in things they used to do. Sometimes they become paranoid they are controlled by fear .

Nigeria ’ s mental health challenge should be treated as normal health issues and family support is also imperative in managing the scourge . Indeed, the harsh economic condition has led to all sort of mental health challenges among the populace that could result in suicidal instincts.

Yet Nigerians must be encouraged to become more open as they grapple with their frustrations. Many suicide notes are filled with confessions that the victims had no one to talk to. Loneliness and the absence of support are the bedrock of suicide incidents.

We recommend that trauma centres manned by seasoned psychologists and psychiatrists be set up for counselling purposes. This is where the role of community and faith-based organisations becomes handy. Where government fails to set up trauma centres, faith-based bodies should be active in providing care and counselling to single parents, out-of-job youths, drug addicts and rape victims, as this set forms the bulk of those with suicidal tendencies.

Above all, nothing can replace individual admonition to self. In times like these, citizens must fall back on internal philosophy that emphasizes hope above despair and purpose above emptiness. For, in the long run, the will to live or die is sometimes a personal decision.

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Franklyn Nwosu  – Prolific Writer

How often do you check up on people…?

Friends and acquaintances.. A little Hi, hello and how are you doing here and there wouldn’t take much of your time. In this time of depression and people choosing SUICIDE as an escape route from life’s unending struggles, you could be a reason that person still wanna hang on.

Reach out to people, know how they are doing because once they are gone, your lengthy RIP post on social media is insignificant.


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Meaning and Relevance of Metaphysics to the Society

Meaning and Relevance of Metaphysics to the Society

Meaning and Relevance of Metaphysics in the Contemporary Era

This philosophical article will discuss extensively the meaning of metaphysics, examine its philosophical foundation, and most importantly indicate its relevance and importance in the contemporary era.


Outline for the Discourse

  1. Introduction to Metaphysics from Philosophy
  2. Introducing Metaphysics
  3. Etymology and Meaning of Metaphysics
  4. Philosophic Foundation of Metaphysics
  5. Relevance of Metaphysics in the Contemporary Era/Society
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

Introduction to Metaphysics from Philosophy

Philosophy (as well as metaphysics), as an area of study, is lately attracting a lot of lack of patronage for the singular reason that it does not put “food on the table nor does it build bridges”. This is a manner of describing the commonplace opinion that philosophy is an abstract “speculative reasoning or exercise about cosmos or reality and thus has no direct relevance or contribution to make in practical issues of human existence”.

For such people, philosophy has nothing to do with the real world. It is seen as mere speculations that have no practical significance. Some go further to say that philosophy is a study in futility. Others are of the opinion that the study of philosophy, especially in our tertiary institutions has no significant value.

Oftentimes, people think that students of philosophy are wasting their precious time in studying philosophy. Some non-students of philosophy do not understand what philosophy students do in their philosophy classes. Some people have rejected philosophy on the assumption that it plays no important role in human life and the development of human society.

On several occasions, young students of philosophy and other non-students of philosophy have posed some questions to their lecturers demanding to know the essence of studying philosophy: What is the value of philosophy?

Introducing Metaphysics

On the other hand, Metaphysics is one of the major branches of philosophy and when most people neglect philosophy, they end up neglecting metaphysics.

This is because most people perceive philosophy as an abstract discipline, and abstraction in philosophy has to do with metaphysics which is the part of philosophy that studies the things that are unseen or things that are beyond the physical realm. This will be further explained in the definition and clarification of Metaphysics after this introductory section.

Now, because of the abstract nature of metaphysics (philosophy), many have questioned if metaphysics is of any relevance to our contemporary time. This is the heart of this article.

Metaphysics is a course that causes headache to almost everybody who tries to deal with it; this is because metaphysics, which is a study about the things beyond the physical, ought to be reached by non-physical beings.

Yes, since it is an abstract discipline, don’t you think that only abstract entities can understand it and its characteristics fully? So when physical beings (like human beings) try to access it, we end up studying till infinity (ad infinitum).

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The Etymological Definition of Metaphysics

Metaphysics, from its etymology, is coined from Greek words, ‘ta meta ta physika’, which means beyond physics or beyond nature.

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that studies the essence of a thing. This includes questions of beingbecomingexistence, and reality.

The word “metaphysics” comes from the Greek words that literally mean “beyond nature“. “Nature” in this sense refers to the nature of a thing, such as its cause and purpose. Metaphysics then studies questions of a thing beyond or above questions of its nature, in particular, its essence or its qualities of being. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in a “suitably abstract and fully general manner”.

The Philosophic Foundation of Metaphysics

The term ‘metaphysics’ was invented by the 1st-century BCE head of Aristotle‘s Peripatetic school, Andronicus of Rhodes. Andronicus was the person who edited and arranged Aristotle’s works, giving the name Metaphysics literally “the books beyond the physics,” perhaps the books to be read after reading Aristotle’s books on nature, which he called the Physics.

The Greek for nature is physis, so metaphysical is also “beyond the natural.” Proponents of naturalism deny the existence of anything metaphysical.

Aristotle never used the term metaphysics. For Plato, Aristotle’s master, the realm of abstract ideas was more “real” than that of physical. i.e., material or concrete, objects, because ideas can be more permanent (the Being of Parmenides), whereas material objects are constantly changing (the Becoming of Heraclitus).

Where Plato made his realm of ideas the “real world,” Aristotle made the material world the source of ideas as mere abstractions from common properties found in many concrete objects. Even Neo-platonists like Porphyry also inquire about the existential status of the Platonic ideas. They ask such questions as Does Being exist? What does it mean to say “Being Is“? ‘What is the difference between Being and being’?

In recent centuries then, the metaphysical has become “beyond the material.” Metaphysics has become the study of immaterial things, like the mind, which is said to “supervene” on the material brain.

Metaphysics is a kind of idealism, in stark contrast to “eliminative” materialism. And metaphysics has failed in proportion to the phenomenal success of naturalism, the idea that the laws of nature alone can completely explain the contents of the universe.

Aristotle’s Physics

Aristotle’s Physics describes the four “causes” or “explanations” of change and movement of objects already existing in the cosmos. Aristotle’s metaphysics can then be seen as explanations for existence itself. What exists? What is it to be? What processes can bring things into (or out of) existence? Is there a cause or explanation for the universe as a whole?

From the beginning, Aristotle’s books on “First Philosophy” considered God among the possible causes of the fundamental things in the universe.

Tracing the regress of causes back in time as an infinite chain, Aristotle postulated a first cause or he called the “uncaused cause.” Where every motion needs a prior mover to explain it, he postulated an “unmoved first mover.” These postulates became a major element of theology down to modern times.

Aristotle’s First Philosophy included theology, since first causes, new beginnings or genesis, might depend on the existence of God. And there remains a strong connection between modern metaphysicians and theologians.

Medieval Thoughts on Metaphysics

For medieval philosophers, metaphysics was taken as the science that is extra-sensible in nature. Albertus Magnus called it science beyond the physical. Thomas Aquinas narrowed it to the cognition of God. However, there was a clear domination of religion in the medieval era of philosophy. And thus, there was a recognition of metaphysics in relation to  God. Here, reason was buried and dug up in the modern era of philosophy.

Modern Thoughts on Metaphysics

Descartes made a turn from what exists to knowledge of what exists. He changed the emphasis from a study of being to a study of the conditions of knowledge or epistemology.

In Germany, Kant’s Critiques of Reason claimed a transcendental, non-empirical realm he called noumenal, for pure, or a priori, reason beyond or behind the phenomena. Kant’s phenomenal realm is deterministic, a matter governed by Newton’s laws of motion.

Kant’s immaterial noumena are in the metaphysical non-empirical realm of the “things themselves” along with freedom, God, and immortality.

Kant identified ontology not with the things themselves but, influenced by Descartes, what we can think – and reason – about the things themselves. In either case, Kant thought metaphysical knowledge might be impossible for finite minds such as the human being.

Relevance of Metaphysics in the Contemporary Society/Era

Metaphysics is a major branch of philosophy, but its relevance cuts across many other disciplines in the contemporary society. And, this section is going to treat (in detail) the relevance of metaphysics, in relation to other disciplines, in our contemporary society/Era. However, following from the discussions above, one could easily say that metaphysics is of utmost importance in the contemporary time. The relevance of metaphysics could be discussed by considering these attributes of Metaphysics to man and to the contemporary society. Metaphysics is the foundation of philosophy.
The relevance of metaphysics in the contemporary time, therefore, includes the following below;

  • Metaphysics as the Study of Being and its Essence.
  • Metaphysics constitutes the root of all knowledge (Rene Descartes).
  • Metaphysics aids us to study the things beyond physics.
  • Metaphysics helps us to study the natural world and how it operates.
  • Metaphysics removes the fear of the unknown and religious inclinations.
  • Metaphysics begins when physics ends.
  1. Metaphysics as the Study of Being and its Essence

It is obvious that both in the contemporary era and other previous eras, beings exist. And if it is the fact that beings exist, then anything that studies the beings that exist is relevant to the beings that have existed is existing, and will still exist.

Simply put, since the contemporary era constitutes the existence and essence of beings, then metaphysics is very relevant because it studies being or reality or existence as well as its essence.

It is only those who do not know (but in one way or the other use) metaphysics that will say it does not have any relevance. Although many other disciplines like Biology can study the nature of the human eye (which is a being), but metaphysics grounds them (other sciences) all. This would be clarified in the discussion of the second point which will employ Rene Descartes’ Project. 

As far as the study of beings is still ongoing (and even more focused on) in the contemporary time, metaphysics will continue to be relevant in our contemporary time.

In fact, the centerpiece of metaphysical consideration is ‘being’. According to Izu Marcel O., in his book titled “Beginning Metaphysics”, he defines being as anything that is, or exists, or can be known, or that can be thought of; ANYTHING that is NOTHING.

He further explains that the definition of being cannot escape the association of ‘thing’. So as far as things exist (especially in the contemporary time), metaphysics will continue to study the existence and essence of things, and as far as metaphysics continues to study the existence and essence of things, it will continue to be relevant (even in the contemporary era).

2. Metaphysics Constitutes the Root of Knowledge

Metaphysics serves as a foundation to knowledge as a whole, by implication, metaphysics grounds the whole of knowledge. 

Rene Descartes (1596-1650), represented his project as a tree. A tree, where the root is ‘METAPHYSICS’, the trunk is ‘PHYSICS’ and the branches represent the ‘SPECIFIC SCIENCES’ that includes Medicine, Morals, and Mathematics (mmm).

In the close analysis of his (Descartes) metaphysics, he disclosed that Metaphysics constitutes the root of the tree of knowledge. For him, it is in metaphysics that an absolute sure foundation can be discovered from human knowledge. Metaphysics grounds the knowledge of geometry and properties of bodies.

The physics which is located at the trunk of the tree grows directly from the root and providing support for the other specific sciences. This entails that the root provides support for the other sciences through the physics (trunk).

metaphysics

Descartes Project 

The sciences of medicine, mathematics, and morals growing out of the trunk through the branches represent the application of his mechanistic model to particular subject areas.

The fruits of the philosophy and of human knowledge are found on the three branches of medicine, mathematics, and morals.

Talking about its relevance and applications in our contemporary time, metaphysics is relevant because it is the thing grounding the physics and the specific sciences as illustrated in the diagram above.

  1. Metaphysics Aids One to Know the Non-physical Entities

Metaphysics is that branch of philosophy that studies the things beyond physics. In other words, it studies the non-physical, non-material, or abstract entities.

In this sense, metaphysics is relevant in the contemporary time because it has continued to help humans to simplify the ambiguous nature of the abstract realities in the contemporary era. Metaphysics goes further to relax our mind and reduce our fear of the unknown. It creates an avenue for humans to reach the immaterial things.

On the other hand, metaphysics has played a role in the way and manner religion is understood and practiced among humans in the societies. From our knowledge of metaphysics, we see that everything that is, derives its being from the Being that is necessary.

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This Being that is by necessity is called different names by different religions; God by Christianity, Allah by Islam, Buddha by Buddhism, etc. This is a simple philosophical knowledge. The implication of this understanding is that there is only one Supreme Being that is approached differently. This is what is called “The Paradox of the One and Many in Religion”.

4. Metaphysics removes the fear of the unknown and Religious Inclinations

Since the age of antiquity, religion has been presented with many unquestionable doctrines, inclinations, and practices. Even in the contemporary society, those unquestionable and some unknown doctrines, inclinations, and practices, are still in existence. And, most times, when a religious leader makes an affirmation, it is taken to unquestionable. Also, it is advised not to touch the anointed and do no harm to the prophets of God. But, most of these religious leaders have turned to leaders of religion. And, by so doing, they reconstruct and manipulate religious doctrines and practices to the very advantage of their daily lives. 

Yes, God is a metaphysical being who operates in a metaphysical way. So, it takes only a leap to the metaphysical world to understand when there is a misinterpretation in the religious doctrines and teachings. Therefore, the study of metaphysics strongly helps one to be aware of the metaphysical concepts. It also removes the fear of the unknown, the unknown religious doctrines, and inclinations.

Therefore, religiously, metaphysics is relevant to contemporary society because it helps people to understand and develop their religious and spiritual life as well as society. 

5. Metaphysics helps us to study the natural world and how it operates

In the contemporary era, metaphysics challenges man to develop an interest in things beyond the mundane issues thereby making man discover new areas of knowledge, realize those lifelong goals, and become more responsible citizens of the society.

Again, people who study metaphysics tend to seek things that are beyond the physical world and as such, pay little or no attention to material things which are the basis of most immoral activities like robbery, prostitution, kidnapping, child trafficking, child swapping, abortion, corruption, etc. People like Nelson Mandela, Julius Nyerere, Martin Luther King Jnr., and few others are examples of those who shunned mundane things and preached uprightness.

Metaphysics begins when Physics ends

Metaphysics is the study of things beyond the physical realm. It studies things that are not seen or touched. It studies concepts that are in the world of forms (as in Plato’s ideology). Humans, in their day-to-day activities, associate themselves with the physical concepts as well as the metaphysical concepts. In most cases, where the physical concepts end, metaphysical concepts begin. 

However, the study of metaphysics equips one with the necessary tool to relate with the metaphysical at the end of physical endeavor. For instance, God is a metaphysical being. At almost every moment, humans (who are atheists and deists) act and relate (physically) with their fellow human beings with the fear of God (who is metaphysical). But, in order to maintain a coherency and also relate with the two different ideas, that is, in order to relate with the metaphysical after the physical, there is every need to employ metaphysics. 

Conclusion

The attempt of this research so far has been to justify the relevance of metaphysics in the contemporary era. However, the claim of the research is not that I have explored all the areas of relevance of metaphysics in the contemporary era.

The value of metaphysics cannot be overemphasized. The point here is that our contemporary era needs metaphysics; it is a human need. We cannot but do with it.

Any attempt to run away from metaphysics and philosophy at large will certainly portend doom for our contemporary time. Always call to mind that metaphysics helps to develop and transform the human mind and when the human mind is properly developed, it goes a long way to translate to human and societal development.

It is therefore recommended and encouraged for at least a little activity of metaphysical training to be observed for all and sundry in this contemporary time.


References

  1. O. Donald, Lecture on “Landmark Philosophy”, on Thursday 3rd, May 2018. 08:24 am.
  2. Izu M. Onyeocha “Beginning Metaphysics” pgs, 14, and 74.

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Political Analysis – Department of Government

Introduction 

Political Analysis simply means any systematic attempt to understand, examine, evaluate as well as explain any form of  political phenomena by first breaking them down into conceptual parts in order to make sense of the interplay between its associated variables.

In other words, Political analysis is the act of breaking any political element down into parts in other to study or get full knowledge of the element as a whole.

For a clearer and more coherent understanding of the meaning and principles of political analysis, it pertinent to clarify the major concepts in this discourse such as ‘politics’ and ‘analysis’.

What is Politics?

Politics simply refers to a set of activities associated with the official governance of a state, country, or any geographical area. It involves making decisions (by the decision making body) that apply to members of a group.

Politics also refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance which entails an organized control over a human community such as a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, which is therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. For any activity to be said to be ‘political’, it must in essence involve some elements of politics.

Some scholars have identified the origin of the concept with the term, “polis” as used to identify the organization of the city-state of Athens in early Greece. Politics from the Greek word “politikos” means “of, for, or relating to citizens. It is the practice and theory of influencing others from the “affairs of the city” itself.

Polis directly relates to the term “city” while the term ‘politics’ relates to the “citizens”. Drawing from the later expression, one could easily deduce or conclude that politics relates to the city affairs of the citizens, which in ancient Greece was considered a city-state or the “pouty”.

Politics exist whenever there is relationship exhibiting controlling of power, authority, influence and conflict. It is never practiced by man in isolation (government and politics can never exist without the existence of man). Politics can therefore, said to be an art of resolving contradictions or conflicts for the purpose of serving human socio-economic interests.

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 What is Analysis?

Analysis simply means the ‘breaking up’ or ‘separation’ of a whole into component parts”, “an examination of a complex, its element and their relations” in order for the examiner to fully comprehend and explain it. Simply stated, analysis could be the systematic process of assessing in order to unravel the unknown from the known the hidden from the observable.

What is Political Analysis?

Political analysis is simply a systematic attempt at understanding, examining, evaluating as well as explaining political phenomena by first breaking them into conceptual parts in order to make sense of the interplay between its associated variables.

Just as the name implies, political analysis is an attempt to examine in order to understand political phenomena by bringing them into deep scrutiny which must be systematic and objective.

The basic concept of Political analysis is all about analyzing some political issue or phenomena in a given country. For instance, the issue of the terrorist sect (Boko Haram) in Nigeria, activities of herdsmen in Nigeria, unemployment, kidnapping, armed robbery, IPOB, the ISIS case and many other politically oriented issues. At any attempt to examine these issues by breaking them into micro parts, one ends up in political analysis. 

Political analysis first requires understanding and accepting that the phenomena to be analyzed have some political manifestation, that is exhibit some element of politics.

Again, Political analysis could be seen as a process of dis-aggregating the key players in policy environment, identifying how they influence that environment and related variables.

Scope of Political Analysis

Any attempt to comprehend the scope of political analysis must come to terms with several questions inherent in the subject matter of politics itself which are mainly the concern of political science. For instance;

  • What is the role of power in the nature of political structure established by different political systems?
  • What is the prerequisite condition of stability in a political system?
  • What is the essence of the idea or theory that “a government that governs the least governs the best”?
  • When must citizens obey or refuse to obey the state?
  • What aspect of federalism makes its practice in some societies difficult?

The scope of political analysis must raise contemporary issues which the academy of political science must necessary deal with. It may raise following questions;

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  • What attitude and values produce political conflicts?
  • What is the nature of socio-economic relationship inside a polity?
  • What political organization is active in the struggle to achieve political consensus?

As one reflects on these questions as outlined above, one, momentarily begins to appreciate the essence of political analysis.

Importance of Political Analysis

Political analysis is important because political issues that occupy government and society are many, varied and also complex.

Political analysis is important because when a phenomena formulate appropriate polices needed for the smooth running of government when complex issues are properly analyzed, their solutions are proffered by the analysts to policy maker too use in their planning and execution of public policy.

Without political analysis most problems faced by various governments will remain unsolved. Therefore, political analysis helps us to understand our world better, in order to make intelligent or educated decisions for the benefit of man in his society.

Diverse Political analysis

Political analysis could come into play in most policy making environments and hence may not pertain just to the field of politics but also is an often used term in marketing and related fields.

What we can refer to as a “political system” is usually very dynamic and almost never static. Political analysis is mostly about assigning reasons to the changes that these researchers observe. Some studies in this area also describe “what if?” scenarios using existing facts and workable assumptions. Political scientists are quite skeptical! They conduct studies questioning analyses and debating hypotheses.

The conclusions from political analyses influence strategies being formulated; any strategy being formulated for a company, or even for the government.

Conclusion

However, since no one can completely be immune from the effects of politics, political analysis makes it possible for people to make rational choices and decisions. In order to free themselves from the negative and often painful consequences of political actions of political actors in a given political system.


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The True Origin of Easter Celebration

The True Origin of Easter Celebration

The True Origin of Easter by David Pack

Edited by Gaétan Dolorès

Most people follow along as they have been taught, assuming that what they believe and do is right. They take their beliefs for granted. Most do not take time to prove why they do the things that they do. Why do you believe what you believe? Where did you get your beliefs? Is the source of your religious beliefs the Bible—or some other authority? If you say the Bible, are you sure? What about Easter?
Since hundreds of millions keep it, supposedly in honor of Jesus Christ’s Resurrection, then certainly the Bible must have much to say about it.
Surely there are numerous verses mentioning rabbits, eggs and egg hunts, baskets of candy, hot cross buns, Lent, Good Friday and sunrise services—not to mention Easter itself. Easter requires close scrutiny and this booklet examines it carefully. Bible Authority for Easter? The Bible is the source for all things Christian.

Does the Bible Mention Easter?

Yes. Notice Acts 12:1. King Herod began to persecute the Church, culminating in the brutal death of the apostle James by sword. This pleased the Jews so much that the apostle Peter was also taken prisoner by Herod.
The plan was to later deliver him to the Jews. Verse 3 says, “Then were the days of unleavened bread.” The New Testament Church was observing these feast days described in Leviticus 23. Now read verse 4: “And when he [Herod] had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions [sixteen] of soldiers to keep him; intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people.”

Is This Bible Authority for Easter?

This passage is not talking about Easter. How do we know? The word translated Easter is the Greek word pascha (derived from the Hebrew word pesachthere is no original Greek word for Passover), and it has only one meaning.
It always means Passover—it can never mean Easter! For this reason, we find a Hebrew word used in the Greek New Testament. Once again, this Hebrew word can only refer to Passover. And other translations, including the Revised Standard Version, correctly render this word Passover.
Instead of endorsing Easter, this verse really proves that the Church was still observing the supposedly Jewish Passover ten years after the death of Christ! Now let’s go to the other scriptures authorizing Easter. This presents a problem.

Does the Bible Endorse the Keeping Easter Celebration?

There are none! There are absolutely no verses, anywhere in the Bible, that authorize or endorse the keeping of Easter celebration! The Bible says nothing about Lent, eggs and egg hunts, baskets of candy, etc., although it does mention hot cross buns and sunrise services as abominations, which God condemns.
We will examine them and learn why.
The mistranslation of Acts 12:4 is a not-so-subtle attempt to insert a pagan festival into scripture for the purpose of authorizing it. We will examine the Passover more closely later.

The Passover

A Brief Look at Passover The well-known Old Testament Passover story centers on God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt through ten miraculous plagues.
These included how the death angel would “pass over” all the houses where the Israelites lived.
They were instructed to put blood over their doorposts to ensure that only the firstborn of Egypt would die. In this first Passover, it was only the blood of the slain lamb that protected each Israelite home. While Egypt suffered the plague of death, the Israelite firstborn were delivered by blood.

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By obeying God’s command and by faith in His promise to protect them, they were spared from death. The Passover account is found in Exodus 12:12-14. Verse 14 states that the Passover ceremony was commanded by God to be an annual memorial feast to be kept by Israel “forever.
This command is repeated in Leviticus 23:5. Exodus 12:15 introduces the seven-day festival called the Days of Unleavened Bread (also repeated in Leviticus 23:6-8), which was to immediately follow the Passover feast each year. This is why Acts 12:3 states, “Then were the days of unleavened bread,” before mentioning the Passover in the next verse. These days were always kept in conjunction with one another. 
What About the New Testament? If the Passover was instituted forever, then New Testament instruction for its observance should be clear. This instruction is found in I Corinthians 5:7-8: “Purge out therefore the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, as you are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast [of unleavened bread, which always followed Passover, as explained above]…” Christ, as the Lamb of God (John 1:29; Acts 8:32; I Peter 1:19; Rev. 5:6), replaced the Old Testament lamb eaten on Passover evening each year.
The New Testament symbols of the bread and wine were instituted so that Christians could eat the body and drink the blood of Christ, the true Lamb of God. Jesus’ sacrifice replaced the need to kill a spring lamb. Luke 22:19 shows that Jesus substituted the bread and wine to be taken annually in commemoration of His sacrifice for the remission of our sins—both spiritual and physical.
Notice this from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edit., Vol. 8, p. 828: “There is no indication of the observance of the Easter festival in the New Testament, or in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers…The first Christians continued to observe the Jewish festivals [God’s festivals of Leviticus 23], though in a new spirit, as commemorations of events which those festivals had foreshadowed. Thus the Passover, with a new conception added to it, of Christ as the true Paschal Lamb…continued to be observed.”
Does the following sound familiar?—Spring is in the air! Flowers and bunnies decorate the home. Father helps the children paint beautiful designs on eggs dyed in various colors.
These eggs, which will later be hidden and searched for, are placed into lovely, seasonal baskets. The wonderful aroma of the hot cross buns mother is baking in the oven waft through the house. Forty days of abstaining from special foods will finally end the next day.
The whole family picks out their Sunday best to wear to the next morning’s sunrise worship service to celebrate the savior’s resurrection and the renewal of life. Everyone looks forward to a succulent ham with all the trimmings. It will be a thrilling day.
After all, it is one of the most important religious holidays of the year. Easter, right? No! This is a description of an ancient Babylonian family—2,000 years before Christ—honoring the resurrection of their god, Tammuz, who was brought back from the underworld by his mother/wife, Ishtar (after whom the festival was named).
As Ishtar was actually pronounced “Easter” in most Semitic dialects, it could be said that the event portrayed here is, in a sense, Easter. Of course, the occasion could easily have been a Phrygian family honoring Attis and Cybele, or perhaps a Phoenician family worshipping Adonis and Astarte.
Also fitting the description well would be a heretic Israelite family honoring the Canaanite Baal and Ashtoreth. Or this depiction could just as easily represent any number of other immoral, pagan fertility celebrations of death and resurrection—including the modern Easter celebration as it has come to us through the Anglo-Saxon fertility rites of the goddess Eostre or Ostara.
These are all the same festivals, separated only by time and culture. If Easter is not found in the Bible, then where did it come from? The vast majority of ecclesiastical and secular historians agree that the name of Easter and the traditions surrounding it are deeply rooted in pagan religion.

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Now notice the following powerful quotes that demonstrate more about the true origin of how the modern Easter celebration got its name: “Since Bede the Venerable (De ratione temporum 1:5) the origin of the term for the feast of Christ’s Resurrection has been popularly considered to be from the Anglo-Saxon Eastre, a goddess of spring…the Old High German plural for dawn, eostarun; whence has come the German Ostern, and our English Easter” (The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, Vol. 5, p. 6). “The fact that vernal festivals were general among pagan peoples no doubt had much to do with the form assumed by the Eastern festival in the Christian churches.  The English term Easter is of pagan origin” (Albert Henry Newman, D.D., LL.D., A Manual of Church History, p. 299). “On this greatest of Christian festivals, several survivals occur of ancient heathen ceremonies. To begin with, the name itself is not Christian but pagan.
The widely-known historian, Will Durant, in his famous and respected work, Story of Civilization, pp. 235, 244-245, writes, “Ishtar [Astarte to the Greeks, Ashtoreth to the Jews], interests us not only as analogue of the Egyptian Isis and prototype of the Grecian Aphrodite and the Roman Venus, but as the formal beneficiary of one of the strangest of Babylonian customs…known to us chiefly from a famous page in Herodotus: Every native woman is obliged, once in her life, to sit in the temple of Venus [Easter], and have intercourse with some stranger.” We must now look closer at the origin of other customs associated with the modern Easter celebration.

Origin of Other Customs Associated with Modern Celebration

Eggs, Egg Hunts and Easter Eggs have always been associated with the Easter celebration. Nearly every culture in the modern world has a long tradition of coloring eggs in beautiful and different ways. I once examined a traveling display of many kinds of beautifully decorated egg designs that represented the styles and traditions of virtually every country of modern Europe.
Notice the following: “The origin of the Easter egg is based on the fertility lore of the Indo-European races…
The egg to them was a symbol of spring… In Christian times the egg had bestowed upon it a religious interpretation, becoming a symbol of the rock tomb out of which Christ emerged to the new life of His resurrection” (Francis X. Weiser, Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs, p. 233).
This is a direct example of exactly how pagan symbols and customs are “Christianized,” i.e., Christian-sounding names are superimposed over pagan customs. This is done to deceive—as well as make people feel better about why they are following a custom that is not in the Bible.
Notice: “Around the Christian observance of Easter…folk customs have collected, many of which have been handed down from the ancient ceremonial…symbolism of European and Middle Eastern pagan spring festivals…for example, eggs…have been very prominent as symbols of new life and resurrection” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1991 ed., Vol. 4, p. 333).
The Easter Bunny Here are two additional quotes from Francis Weiser about the origin of the “Easter bunny”: “In Germany and Austria little nests containing eggs, pastry and candy are placed in hidden spots, and the children believe that the Easter bunny, so popular in this country, too, had laid the eggs and brought the candy” (p. 235) and “The Easter bunny had its origin in pre-Christian fertility lore…The Easter bunny has never had religious symbolism bestowed on its festive usage…
However, the bunny has acquired a cherished role in the celebration of Easter as the legendary producer of Easter eggs for children in many countries” (p. 236).
Here is further proof of the origin of Easter eggs and rabbits. It demonstrates how no one has ever been able to connect the Easter bunny to anything Christian, let alone to the Bible: “The Easter bunny is not a true Christian symbol” (John Bradner, Symbols of Church Seasons and Days, p. 52), and “Although adopted in a number of Christian cultures, the Easter bunny has never received any specific Christian interpretation” (Mirsea Eliade, The Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 558).

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None of this will stop scores of millions of professing Christians from decorating their lawns and houses with Easter bunnies each spring. Consider this last quote: “The hare, the symbol of fertility in ancient Egypt, a symbol that was kept later in Europe…Its place has been taken by the Easter rabbit” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1991 ed., Vol. 4, p. 333).

Even in modern times, rabbits have remained common symbols of fertility. While their rapid rate of reproduction is well known, another problem arises with rabbits—they do not lay eggs! While both are clearly fertility symbols, there is no logical way to connect them. In a world filled with pagan tradition, truth and logic can be lost. Merging these symbols with Christianity makes an already idolatrous practice worse.

On the Contrary

While it is most difficult to dismiss the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ as fairy tale, if we are to compromise by agreeing with writers like David Pack, we shall see that the true origin of Easter is in our very hearts. It is from the true love we bear for another and it is most expressed in the world, ‘For God so Loved the World!’ (Jn. 3:16).

For so we love one another that we are ready to lay down our lives for him/her – that same way did Christ lay down his life for us, so that we might have our own life and only live it in full when we do the will of the father.

On this note, we make Gold to say that the true origin of Easter is in our hearts, out of the burning love, God instills in us the same love He shows Christ who loves us unconditionally and is who we derive our source of loving. Easter then is not to be a week-long activity or for a defined time.  Easter must be a sign of love – a love shown for as long as e live.


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Conditions That Enhance Learning

Conditions That Enhance Learning

CONDITIONS THAT ENHANCE LEARNING

Learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience or being taught. Learning is one of the most fundamental concepts and most researched areas in the domain of psychology.

Learning is the means through which we acquire, not only skills and knowledge, but values, attitudes and emotional reactions as well. Learning can be intentional or unintentional.

Unintentional learning occurs in informal situations as when a student learns a song without setting out to learn it or in the case of child who learns to cry at the sight of any woman on uniform (nurse) because of previous experiences with a nurse.

Intentional learning occurs in the classroom when students are presented with materials or when a student acquires information by looking up a topic in an encyclopedia.

In intentional learning, three basic elements are present; the learner, the activities of both the teacher and pupil and a set goal. The activities are structured in such a way as to provide learning experiences.

There are Conditions that Enhance Learning

They include but not limited to the following.

The Teacher and the Teaching

The teacher’s personality and his methods of teaching facilitate learning. A teacher’s pleasant and friendly personalities are capable of setting student at ease. A teacher who presents the learning materials in an orderly, methodologically, correct manner and shows a clear mastery of his/her subject arouses interest and respect of his students.

Active Participation in Learning as another factor that enhances learning

Students learn better by doing rather than by listening passively. Active participation can take the form of debates, class assignments, sports, drama, oral answering of questions in class and so on.

Knowledge of Progress

Students’ knowledge of their progress which we call “feedback” is an effective form of motivation. The knowledge of progress becomes critical especially when it is positive and encouraging. Teachers need therefore, to mark, grade and furnish students with knowledge of results as soon as possible.

The Learner Must have the Resources to Learn

These resources might be personal, social and technical resources. The personal resources include adequate capacity such as intelligence and temperament to learn the material presented; sufficient prior knowledge and ample motivation to learn. The social resources include support from home and friends while the technical resources consist of finance, materials, equipment and relevant experience. Again, the learner must take advantage of these resources and opportunities.

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This means that the learner has a major role to play in the learning process while the teacher employs different approaches and activities to create a conducive learning environment; the learner actively interacts with the environment and benefits from it.

The Ability and Interest

 Ability and interest must be present to facilitate learning. Health plays an important role in learning. Healthy children learn more effectively than unhealthy children. Children who suffer from malnutrition do not grow well. Stunted growth affects the total development including intellectual powers.

Therefore, the school should always check on students’ health in order to treat those diseases that bother students and reduce their active and effective participation in learning. Furthermore, effective study habits are another factor that enhances learning.

Formation of effective study habits is quite central in facilitating learning. An intelligent child who does not know how to study will often score a ridiculously low grade compared to his potential. Professor Robinson’s method of study (Question, read, survey, recite, and review).

The importance of the learning environment in learning cannot be over emphasized since learning takes place in an environment. The social psychology of a leaning environment is characterized by friendliness among teacher, a warm relationship between students and teachers, respect for one another, the use of decent language in formal and informal interaction between staff and the students, emphatic considerations for problem children and those experiencing difficulties, etc.

Denigration, abuse and mockery are inimical to ta peaceful co-existence among human beings. If teachers and students mind their language and show respect for one another, the environment will be congenial and conducive to learning.

In conclusion, learning should be geared towards solving real problems in life, such as poor social adjustment, teacher-student conflict, and hostility in the classroom amongst others.


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The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

Introduction

Justice in philosophy, is the concept of the proper proportion between a person’s deserts (what is merited) and the good and bad things that befall or are allotted to him or her. Aristotle’s discussion of the virtue of justice has been the starting point for almost all Western accounts.

For him (Aristotle), the key elements of justice is treating like cases alike, an idea that has set later thinkers the task of working out which similarities (need, desert, talent) are relevant.Aristotle distinguishes between justice in the distribution of wealth or other goods (distributive justice) and justice in reparation, as, for example, in punishing someone for a wrong he has done (retributive justice).

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Through the instrumentality of law regulated by the state, the concept of justice in philosophy of law became dearer. As the law grew and developed the concept of justice walked parallel and expanded its tentacles into different spheres of human activities. The essence of legal justice lies in ensuring uniformity and certainty of law and at the same time ensuring the rights and duties duly respected by all.

The notion of justice is the impartiality imbibed in it. The violation of justice which is enforced by the law results in state sanction as ‘punishment’.The concept of the justice is as old as the origin and growth of human society. A man living in society desires peace and, while living in, he tends to experience a conflict of interests and expects a rightful conduct on the others part. 

Comprehensive Definition of Justice

Starting with the origin of justice, the English word “Justice” derives from the Latin “justitia” meaning righteousness or equity. The Roman goddess of justice portrayed as a blind-folded woman with a sword in one hand and a pair of scales of justice in the other has a more complicated derivation.

The earlier versions of justice had an implication of propriety and everything in its place and are best summed up in Tennyson’s single line – Gods in heaven and all right with the world.

Justice in philosophy of law is the quality of being just; Righteousness equitableness, or moral rightness; to uphold the justice of a cause. It is the moral principle determining just conduct. It is the administering of deserved punishment or reward. The maintenance or administration of what is just by law, as by judicial or other proceedings; a court of justice. Justice in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that which is just and the philosophical discussion of that which is just.

The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness. The concept of justice differs in every culture.

Early theories of Justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work the Republic, and Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. Throughout history, various theories have been established.

The word justice meaning ‘the exercise of authority in vindication of right by assigning reward or punishment is over 860 years old (c. 1140 AD). Justice is defined as just behavior or treatment. Justice is rendering to everyone that which is his due.Justice is a very interesting thing; the desire for justice is often felt only when an injustice actually happen. Indeed, if it were not for the existence of injustices, we wouldn’t have a need for justice in the first place. Justice depends upon a perpetual flow of victims. It there are no victims, then no justice is necessary.

It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, while justice mean merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.

The Notion of Justice by Some Philosophers

Plato‘s Notion of Justice

The notion of Justice has been treated by many other philosophers. Starting with an ancient philosopher Plato (348/347 BC), in his philosophy, he gives a prominent place to the idea of justice. Plato was highly dissatisfied with the prevailing degenerating conditions in Athens.

The Athenian democracy was on the verge of rain and was ultimately responsible for Socrates’s death. The amateur meddlesomeness and excessive individualism because main targets of Plato’s attack. This attack came in the form of the construction of an ideal society in which justice reigned supreme, since Plato believed justice to be the remedy for curing these evils.

After criticizing the conventional theories of justice presented by Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus and Claucon, Plato gives his own theory of justice according to which individually, justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a person self-consitent and good; socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.

Plato says that Justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole – individual as well as social.Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society. It is the identical quality that makes good and social. Justice is an order and duty.

John Rawls Notion of Justice

John Rawls (1921 – 2002) was an American political philosopher in the liberal tradition. His theory of justice as fairness describes a society of free citizens holding equal basic rights and cooperating within an egalitarian economic system. Rawls constructs justice as fairness around specific interpretations at the ideas that citizens are free and equal and that society should be fair.

He sees it as resolving the tensions between the ideas of freedom and equality, which have been highlighted both by the socialist critique of liberal democracy and the conservative critique of the modern welfare state.

Rawls holds that justice as fairness is the most egalitarian, and also the most plausible, interpretation of these fundamental concepts of liberalism. He also argues that justice as fairness provides a superior understanding of justice to that of the dominant tradition in modern political thought: utilitarianism.

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Rawls makes his final clarification on the principles of justice in one paragraph:Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. 

First Principle: Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. 

Second Principle: Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.”

The Oxford English Dictionary defines the ‘just’ person as one who typically “does what is morally ‘right’ and is disposed to ‘giving everyone his or her due’, offering the word ‘fair’ as a synonym.

The word comes from the Latin ‘Jus’, meaning right or law. But philosophers want to get beyond etymology and dictionary definitions to consider, for example, the nature of justice as both a moral virtue of character and a desirable quality of political society, as well as how it applies to ethical and social decision making. We have seen the theory of Plato and contemporary philosopher Rawls.


St. Augustine’s Notion of Justice

St. Augustine (354 – 430 AD) a medieval philosopher was born and raised in the Roman Province of North Africa, during his life, he experienced the injustices, the corruption, and the erosion of the Roman Empire. His conception of Justice is the familiar one of “the virtue by which all people are given their due”.

Aquinas theory of justice is also quite compatible with Augustine’s. He offers us an Aristotelian definition, maintaining that ‘justice is a habit whereby a man renders to each one his due by a constant and perpetual will’.

He sees justice as a moral habit of a virtuous character what specifically distinguishes it from other moral virtue is that by justice, a person is consistently committed to respecting the rights of others overtime. Aquinas considers justice to be preeminent among the moral values.

Immanuel Kant’s Theory of Justice

Kant’s theory of justice is seen clearly in his metaphysical elements of justice, which constitutes the first part of his metaphysics of morals, Kant develops his theory of justice. For Kant, justice is inextricably bound up with obligations with which we can rightly be required to comply.

According to Kant, there is only one innate human right possessed by all persons, that is the right freely to do what one wills, so long as that is ‘compatible with the freedom of every one else in accordance with a universal law’.

Thus one person’s right freely to act cannot extend to infringing on the freedom of others or the violation of their rights. This leads to Kant’s ultimate universal principle of justice.

Notion of Justice in Aristotle’s Ethics

Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) is an ancient philosopher who lived and contributed immensely to the Golden age of philosophy. He towers over the history of philosophy having made fundamental contributions and impacts in many fields, among them are logic, metaphysics, physics, biology, ethics, rhetoric, poetics, and politics.

His thoughts and political teachings are evident in practical works, basically in his major books, Nicomachean Ethics, Rhetoric and Politics.

These works are not straightforward scientific treatises, because we pursue practical sciences not simply for the sake of knowledge, as we do the theoretical ones, but also for the sake of the benefits derived from them.

The term ‘just’, as used by Aristotle, has two separate meanings; in its first meaning it is principally used to describe a conduct in agreement with the ‘law’, a conduct, therefore, which conforms to an established, authoritative rule of human conduct; in short, it is used to describe a conduct which conforms to whatever constitutes an authoritative instrument of social and moral control.

In this sense justice denotes a ‘moral disposition which renders men apt to do just things and which causes them to act justly and to wish what is just’. It refers primarily to the application of observance of certain authoritative rules of human conduct and should, consequently, rather be called the virtue of ‘righteousness’ or of ‘moral justice’ (a virtue displayed towards others, a social virtue).

In its second meaning, justice signifies equality, or , to be exact, a ‘fear mean’ it is this second meaning of ‘justice” in the narrower sense in which we are primarily interested, since it constitutes that concept by means of which the law in action, and not merely the moral conduct of man can be more specifically evaluated.

In order to make clear the distinction between ‘justice according to an authoritative rule

 And equality, Aristotle states that a person whose conduct is ‘unjust’, who acts contrary to certain moral principles, and therefore, lacks virtue, is not necessarily unjust as far as the principle of Equality is concerned: that is to say, ‘ he need not be one who has or claims more than his fair due’.

Justice in the sense of equality has to do with eternal and commensurable things; it is concerned with the proportionate ratio of commensurable goods. Thus, a ‘just’ wage is a wage proportionate to the type and amount of labor invested, it is one which is neither too great not too little (disproportionate), but midway between the two extremes.

Similarly, a just law is the idea mean between the two extremes of defect and excess. Justice or the ‘just in the sense of moral virtue is determined by the authoritative rule or rules of human conduct, while justice, in the sense of “proportionate fairness” is founded on the principle of Equality.

This parallelism of “moral justice” and equality raises many difficult questions, particularly as regards the relation of these two terms. It is not permissible to assume that equality alone constitutes the basis of all “legal justice”, since Aristotle himself makes the definite assertion that the common welfare of a politically organized society depends primarily upon “moral justice”, which alone preserves happiness.

Nor, on the other hand, does “moral justice”, as a general virtue, hold a rank superior to that of equality. It cannot, therefore, be made use of to define, modify, or compliment the principle of Equality.

Relationship Between Moral Justice and Equity in Aristotle

Aristotle explains the relations of ‘moral justice’ and equality by pointing out that equality is related to “moral justice” in the same way as the part is related to the whole.

Moral justice and equality are not two co-extensive terms. In order to illustrate this particular relationship he adds that not everything which runs counter to the notion of ‘moral justice’ also runs counter to the principle of equality, while whatever runs counter to the principle of equality also runs counter to the notion of moral justice.

In other words, every infraction of the principle of “justice in the wider sense” (Equality) constitutes an infraction of the principle of “justice in the wider sense (moral justice), while not every infraction of the principle of “moral justice” implies an infraction of the principle of equality.

By this, one might be led to believe that “Equality”, as used by Aristotle, is merely one particular moral concept among others.

A particular aspect of general moral justice such is not the case, however, for Aristotle’s very definition of the term ‘Equality’ shows it to be a principle of the most particular nature, and not merely a derivative aspect of the principle of moral justice.

The principle of equality not only creates a definite moral criterion for the administration of human conduct, but also becomes actual in and through the principle of moral justice. At the same time, the principle of moral justice unfolds and manifests itself in the different forms of Equality.

In fact, the principle of equality is essential to a complete understanding of the full implication and significance of the principle of moral justice, the more so, since it constitutes a vital part or element of that principle namely, one form in which moral justice is manifested while moral justice as such expresses the fullness of what is called “righteous” or “justice” is, in its ultimate meaning and content, but the ideal coincidence of human conduct with certain authoritative moral rules, while equality is one of the forms in which this virtue appears.

Only now are we able not only to appreciate Aristotle’s reason for conceiving of two types justice which, though separate and distinct, are nevertheless grounded in the same genus, but also to understand why he makes two separate inquiries into the nature of justice.

While there exists but one universal concept of the ‘just’, it is simultaneously from two direction of the principle of equality.The just is the same, in both instances, although the particular forms in which justice is administered as formulated the ‘modes’ of justice are separate.

For instance, if a man display certain vices, such as throwing away his shield from cowardice or using vile language from bad temper, one might assume that his actions were prompted by a wish to avoid bearing his fair share of the burden of evil and thus, since to aspire to deficiency of proportionate evil is a violation of the principle of equity, that he had been guilty of an ‘injustice in the narrow sense’.

But since these examples of ‘vice’ are meant to describe a conduct motivated primarily by cowardice, ill temper, and the like, and not so much by the desire for disproportionate gain, the principle violated is seen to that of moral justice.

The illustration shows that our moral evaluation of an action depends upon our view point, that is to say, upon whether we examine such an action as regards its relation to an authoritatively established rule of conduct, whether we consider it in the light of its manifest affects upon others and its particular motivation, or whether we evaluate it by the criterion or whether it exceeds or falls short of that ‘mean’ which is expressed by the principle of equality and which is concerned with the proportionate ration of commensurable goods.

Justice is a virtue, the most difficult of all virtues which differs from all other virtues in that it displayed towards others and not towards oneself. It is the most perfect virtue because it does what is to the advantage of another.

Aristotle’s Ethics

The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle’s best-known work on ethics. The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consist of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum.

The little is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus, to whom the work was dedicated. The theme of the work is a Socratic questions previously explored in the works of Plato, Aristotle’s friend and teacher of law men should best live. Ethics by Aristotle, is practical rather than theoretical.

In other words, it is not only a contemplation about good living, because it also aims to create good living. Ethics is about how individuals should best live. Aristotle aimed for ethics to be both an intellectual and a practical pursuit, with the ultimate goal of human well-being and happiness. He believed that being revised well and developing virtuous habits could help a person to live well.

Aristotle also discusses the relationship between the Nicomachean Ethics to the Eudemonian ethics and the magna moralia. It is interested to note that the book V (that concerning justice), VI and VII of the Nicomachean ethics belong also to the Eudemian ethics.


Conclusion

Having viewed the notion of justice in Aristotle’s Ethics, one could deduce that it is necessary for citizens to obey the law in order to be just. Although, civil law itself can be unjust in the sense of being unfair to some, so there is a need to consider special justice as a function of fairness like all moral virtues, for Aristotle, Justice is a rational mean between bad extremes.

The notion of community and the common good play a central role in Aristotle’s theory of justice. In both the Eudemon and the Nicomachean Ethics as well as the politics, standards of justice are understood in terms of what is required for the achievement of the goods that bring people together to co-operate for their mutual benefit. Hence, justice is equality or fairness in distributions and exchange.

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Bibliography

Anto-Hermann Chroust and David L. Oshorn, Aristotle’s Conception of Justice, 17 Notre Dame 2. Rev. 129 (1942).

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans Terence twin, Second Edition (called “Nicomachean”) Indianaplolis, Hackett 1999.

Aristotle, “Politica” 1287 a 18. The English term “norm” – what is right and just by an established convention.

Christoph Horn, “Law, Governance, and Political Obligation” Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Curzer, H. Aristotle, the Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

David Johnson, A Brief History of Justice, First edition.

Great, A. The Ethics of Aristotle, 3rd London: Longmans, Green, and co, 1874.

Irwin, T. Plato’s Ethics, Oxford University Press, 1995.

John Arthur and William H. Shaw, ed., Justice and Economic Distribution. Englewood (LIffs, M): Prentice Hall, 1978.   

John Rawls Influential book “A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971).

John Rawls, Political Liberalism (called “liberalism”) New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Keyt D. Aristotle’s Theory of Distributive Justice, in Keyt, D. and Aniller, E. D. (eds). A Companion to Aristotle’s politics, 238-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Marcia Homiak, “Virtue and Self-Love in Aristotle’s Ethics”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy. (1981).

Richard Kraut: Interpretation on Aritotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2013).

Ronald Polansky, ompanion to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, ed (Cambridge University Press 2014).

Young, C. D, “Aristotle’s Justice” in Richard Kraut (ed), The Backwell Guide to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 179-78. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

Lingard M. “The Conceptual Unity of Friendship in the Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics: Apeiron 48 . 2 (2015), 195 – 219.


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