Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Globally, there has been a terrific uproar among humans about the emergence of 5G Network and its mysterious connection with the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and Antichrist. A lot has been said and discussed about this development. But, in this wonderful article, there will be an intensive, educational and engaging discourse on Covid-19 & 5G Network, how they are connected, the truth behind the development, the need, relevance, importance, function, role and implication of 5G Network to the global and contemporary society.

Corona Virus

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 Coronavirus pandemic. 

Common symptoms include fevercough and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle paindiarrhoeasore throatloss of smell and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 6 April 2020, more than 1,280,000cases of have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in more than 70,500 deaths. More than 270,000 people have recovered.

The 5G Network

5G is a new kind of network: a platform for innovations that will not only enhances today’s mobile broadband services but will also expand mobile networks to support a vast diversity of devices and services and connect new industries with improved performance, efficiency, and cost. 5G will redefine a broad range of industries with connected services from retail to education, transportation to entertainment, and everything in between. We see 5G as technology as transformative as the automobile and electricity.

 In general, 5G use cases can be broadly categorized into three main types of connected services:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband: 5G will not only make our smartphones better, but it will also usher in new immersive experiences, such as VR and AR, with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and cost-per-bit.
  • Mission-Critical communications: 5G will enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable/available, low latency links—such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
  • Massive Internet of Things: 5G will seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power and mobility to provide extremely lean/low-cost solutions.

The Need, Importance, Relevance & Implication of 5G Network

Global Importance

The spectrum used for mobile communications is becoming congested. Current networks cannot always meet consumer demands for data. During periods of heavy use, consumers may experience slow speeds, unstable connections, delays, or loss of service. The effects can range from annoyances like a streaming movie freezing to life-threatening transmission delays between first responders in an emergency.

Importance on Economy, Technology and Business

The demand for data will continue to grow as the number of devices connected to the internet grows. The number of smartphone users in the United States has increased from nearly 63 million in 2010 to an estimated 238 million in 2018. In 2018 there were 17.8 billion connected devices globally, 7 billion of which were connected devices such as smart home equipment. By 2025 the total number of connected devices is projected to exceed 34 billion.

Importance on Industries as related to Business

Industries and consumers will rely on 5G networks to power the devices and transmit the data that drive their daily activities. They will need networks that can provide constant connections, minimal lag times, increased bandwidth to access and share data, and the ability to quickly compile and compute data.

Importance on the Healthcare Sector

In the health care sector, 5G could enable services such as remote patient monitoring, consultation, and even remote surgery. In transportation, 5G will be the backbone that autonomous vehicles rely on. A 2017 study from Deloitte estimated, “self-driving cars enabled by wireless connectivity could reduce emissions by 40-90%, travel times by nearly 40% and delays by 20%.” Before every pandemic of the last 150 years, there was a quantum leap in the electrification of the Earth.

The Conspiracy Theory on Covid-19 & 5G Network

While a conspiracy theory might be taken to mean any explanation of an event or situation involving a conspiracy, in popular usage (as opposed to technical legal usage) the term carries the pejorative connotation that the appeal to a conspiracy is implausible and based on prejudice or insufficient evidence.

Conspiracy theories resist falsification and are reinforced by circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy and an absence of evidence for it are re-interpreted as evidence of its truth, whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved.

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Research suggests that conspiracist ideation belief in conspiracy theories can be psychologically harmful or pathological and that it is highly correlated with psychological projectionparanoia and Machiavellianism.

In the thesis statement of a YouTube video with the innocuous title “Dr. Thomas Cowan, M.D. Discusses the Coronavirus.” The 10-minute video features a man lecturing in front of a whiteboard. It looks like any other low-budget conference video, but that thesis—that pandemics are linked to the “electrification” of the Earth—got certain people’s attention. The video, which was posted March 18, has now been watched more than 660,000 times and has inspired a rather curious, rather dangerous conspiracy theory that the New 5G mobile networks are causing the spread of COVID-19.

5G mobile networks promise faster transmission speeds and lower latency. They’ve been the centrepiece of commercials from various mobile carriers, and they have become a battleground for technological dominance between the United States and China. In 2019, the Trump administration announced their plan for “winning the race” for 5G, and tech sources bemoaned that the United States had fallen behind China in 5G development. Some of the first 5G networks were activated in 2019, and that newness is how 5G somehow got linked to COVID-19 in some people’s minds.

But while the circumstances of this specific conspiracy are unique, the links between mobile networks and disease are a prime example of how history repeats itself. Almost every new wireless infrastructure gets linked to disease in one form or another.

A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

There seems to be a high level of disagreement to claims that there is a link between the 5G network, Coronavirus and anti-Christ. For the past few days, popular pastors and politicians have found a way to link the 5G network with spiritual things and Coronavirus epidemic.

Recall that Oyakhilome, a Nigerian Pastor, told his members in a sermon that the 5G was part of the new world order  where some figures of authority in the world were trying to build a religion, economy and government for the entire universe.Quoting Revelation Chapter 13, he said there is no need for a vaccine, adding that these are part of the Antichrist’s plan for a new world order.

However, Ashimolowo, another Nigerian Clergyman,  countered Oyakilome’s statement, explaining that there was no correlation between 5G and end-time signs.

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Mathew Ashimolowo warned Christians not to join Christian leaders in promoting conspiracy theories. According to him, all those claims were conspiracy theories that had nothing to do with the anti-Christ. He maintained that COVID-19 was a pandemic and must be dealt with as such.

“If coronavirus is caused by 5G, why is it in his village that does not have a 5G?

“It has always been the nature of Christian leaders to plant fear in their members whenever there was going to be a major world occurrence. The church should be more concerned about preparing their members for the Second Coming of the Lord instead of condemning a major technological breakthrough.

It’s fake news to associate 5G to coronavirus.

COVID-19 AND ISOLATION: Leprosy as a case study

Leprosy was the scourge of the ancient world. Nothing evoked more fear, more dread, or more revulsion than the sight of these walking dead. That is what a leper was called, a walking dead man. The smell of his decaying flesh would announce his coming long before the tattered scraps of his clothing would be seen, or his raspy “Unclean! Unclean!” announcement he was required to declare, could be heard. The stumbling shuffle of toeless feet, the wandering of sightless eyes and the moan of a cheek less mouth, all pointed to Leprosy, this unseen attacker that slowly destroyed human bodies, and made the individual an untouchable to society.

Leprosy is a vivid and graphic physical picture of the spiritual defilement of sin. Sin is ugly, loathsome, incurable, and contaminating; it separates men from God and makes them outcasts. The instructions given to the priests in Leviticus 13 help us understand the nature of sin: Sin is inside us, deeper than the skin (Leviticus 13:3); sin also spreads (Leviticus 13:8); sin always defiles.

Evaluation and Conclusion

I urge each and every one of us to discard this concept and idea of always reconciling societal issues, necessary human conditions and experience with Religion. The Christianity we practice today should display an exemplary with the teachings of Christ and religious leaders should focus on the preparation of their members to embrace the second coming of our Lord Christ rather than promoting fake propaganda.

I keep on asking the world this question; The Christianity we practice today is it the same Christianity that the followers of Christ practiced and they were called Christ-like people in Antioch of Pisidia? Why do we always link everything to religion! Few years back Ebola was a pandemic disease that faced some part of the world, Africa precisely but through God’s intervention it came to pass.

During the time of Christ, Leprosy disease was also a threat to humanity but when the untouchable is touched by Jesus (cf. Leviticus 13:42), “Immediately the leprosy left him and he was cured.” ‘‘They were tempted to put their security in their own possessions and in their political alliances with other nations rather than in God. Hosea called his people to return to God to receive pardon, healing, and restoration. God does not abandon us; God goes with us, even now in this time of trial and testing.

In this moment, it is important for us to anchor our hearts in the hope that we have in Jesus Christ and reconcile with God seeking for forgiveness of sins. Now is the time to intensify our prayers and sacrifices for the love of God and the love of our neighbour.

The Importance & Role of Statistics in Business

The Importance & Role of Statistics in Business

Relevance of Statistics in Business

Growing a business without the use of statistics is virtually impossible. Many business enterprises are on the verge of collapse due to the absence of statistical analysis in measuring business performances. This wonderful article explains, in detail, the relevance, role, and importance of statistics in Business. Just relax and keep scrolling.

Statistics in business can be likened to the third eye through which any business enterprise can see the future. It is also the navigation compass that guides a company on the road path to take, in other to avoid shipwreck.

Business statistics play a vital role in areas such as tax preparation, budgeting, proposals, and data mining. Definitely, Business statistics involve aspects of mathematics, management, and market research.

However, statistics in business, involves the application of statistical tools in the area of marketing, production, finance, research development, manpower planning, which is used to extract relevant information for the purpose of decision making.

It may interest you to knot that no subjects, other than statistics, demonstrate and explain, so clearly, that there are several kinds of intelligence. Hence, statistics, if clearly understood, is a fascinating subject that has tremendous importance in computer, philosophy, medical sciences, psychology, and most especially, in business.

Statistics is used every now and then even outside the field of core Education such as Diagnosis and Programming. Statistics works hand-in-hand with Mathematics. Running away from Statistics is like running away from mathematics, you will be tired.

Statistics could be as a science of Average, a numerical statement of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other.  The relevance or importance of statistics in business, cannot be overemphasized.

A business enterprise that is void of statistical analysis in its mode of operation is like a blind man leading a group of fellow blind men. Business statistics is the science of good decision making in the face of uncertainty and is used commonly in many disciplines which involve Economics, auditing, etc. These and more are the relevance of business statistics.

Market Research

Business companies use statistics in market research, evaluation, and product development. Managers would want to monitor the demands of a product. Some questions are vital in market research that is if there is enough demand to justify spending money to develop a product? Companies, from a statistical analysis, use a break-even model, which is constructed to determine the volume of sales necessary for the product to succeed.

Uniformity

An important role of statistics in business is that it is expressed as a percentage ratio, average, a medium, and even a raw number. What is vital is that the method used to calculate the statistics is uniform in each time.

Rational Decision Making

Statistical analysis enables an enterprise to measure the performances of a business and identify trends. This enables the enterprise to make a sound or rational decision, knowing that their judgment is based on data and facts and not on mere assumptions. Better planning and predictions are made through statistical analysis of data and figures.

Management performance / Forecasting

The Usage of Statistics in business and management are limitless, with the proper skill to implement statistical methods. Managers can increase the production capacity of any plant or find out the optimum production capacity, efficient management of work and employee performance, limit the wastage of resources, etc.

However, by using historical data, managers can analyze past successes and failures. This is known as “cause and effect analysis“. Furthermore, managers using predictive analysis of statistical techniques (such as data mining and modeling) can predict future possibilities and trends based on historical data. This goes beyond reporting what has happened to create best estimates for what will happen. Nevertheless, some common applications of predictive analytics include fraud detection and security, risk assessment, marketing, and operations.

Notably, there are limitations in business statistics. This is because statistics focus only on quantitative characteristics, this is to say that statistics are numerical propositions or statements of facts. Therefore, data that cannot be expressed numerically are incapable of statistical analysis. Furthermore, statistics focuses on aggregates and not with individuals.

Also, statistical laws are not perfectly accurate. This is to say that since statistics deals with such characteristics that are affected by a multiplicity of causes, so it is not possible to study the effect of these factors.

Results following these limitations are not accurate but approximate. It can also be established that statistics can be misused by data placed on an inexperienced person which may lead to wrong results. Note that only persons having a fundamental knowledge of statistical methodology can handle the data properly.


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The Effect of Neocolonialism on Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

The Effect of Neocolonialism on Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

What better word portrays the act of the leaders of the country, Nigeria? Several studies on the theme of neocolonialism have been conducted and are still going on to examine the impact of neocolonialism on developing countries in Africa as the case may be. Also, we shall discuss the negative effects of neocolonialism, the impact of neocolonialism in Africa, the effect of neocolonialism in politics, and the present status of African societies.

To understand how neocolonialism has impacted the developing country of Africa, Nigeria, it will be imperative to understand the present status quo in Africa societies.

With that in mind, it is no news that Africa is a stricken and misery society. It is also no secret that Africa is wallowing extremely well behind other developing nations in Asia and South America and definitely behind western civilization the united state and Western Europe.

Neocolonialism in Africa
Neocolonialism in Nigeria
Neocolonialism

Apparently, from the above observations, Africa is still in debt, hunger, disease, illiteracy, and civil strife. To a very reasonable extent, many argue that the condition in Africa is, in fact, worse today than it was at the end of colonialism under the European nation in the 1960s and 1970s. Observing the living condition of the rapidly growing population, it is apparent that this is actually the case.

 Tracing the cause of the problem, Mard (1978), noted that the foundation of today’s conditions in Africa was laid long ago by European through violence, slavery, and colonization.

It is worthy of note to mention that many African nationalist and critic of colonialism see the independence gain from the withdrawing colonial power only partial liberation, some call it falls independence.

Africa nations are said to be currently in a phrase of neocolonialism, a new form of imperial rule stage-managed by the colonial power to give the colonies the illusion of freedom. Western power still controls the African nations whose rulers are either willing puppets or involuntary subordinates of this power.

In the case of Nigeria, which is the case study of this article, since Britain dismantled its colonial administration in Nigeria on October 1, 1960, Nigeria has come to be regarded throughout Africa as a classic case of Neocolonialism state.

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The reasons for these attitudes are to be found in some of the development of Nigeria before and after the countries attainment of political independence.

One of the first moves in a conscious effort to prepare Nigeria for eventual independence was the introduction of a new constitution. The Richard constitution of 1945, a constitution named in honor of its proponent, Sir Arthur Richards who was then the Governor of Nigeria.

The essence of neocolonialism is that the state which is subjected to it is, in theory, independent and has all the outward trappings of international sovereignty. In reality its economic system and thus its political policy is directed from outside.

Nkrumah argues that neocolonialism was conceived as a measure of remedying a potentially dangerous situation that confronted the rich capitalist Western Europe after war world 1. Before the war the ‘great guff between the few rich and the many poor’ in the capitalist country of Europe has forced some alliance between colonial subjects and workers in the capitalist centers. (Nkrumah 1965).

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Most of this effects include;

  1. It leads to death due to the cooperation of Neocolonialism in the LDC like importing expired drugs civil war etc where developed countries sell weapons to the fighting of summation.
  2. It leads to the perpetuation of economic exploitation of the LDC’s (Least Development)by big power that usually tended to exploit resources for their benefit by using their back door; hence LDCs tend to stagnate economically.
  3. It leads to economic dependence and problem due to export and import economy, harsh economic condition part by developing countries to the LDCs and control of the world market in wish the prices of agricultural materials from LDCs keep on changing due to price inflation.
  4. It perpetuates cultural imperialism/imposition western culture in LDCs were by people of the LDCs tend to adopt follow, respect, and obey the culture of Europeans such as dressing style, marriage, eating style, and neglecting their own culture.

Impact of Colonialism and Post Colonialism in Nigeria

The British colonial authority involve in agriculture for the production of certain crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, rubber, groundnut, hide and skin, with the production of this agricultural crops, new cash crops were introduced so that the inhabitant will no longer rely on food crops but also to exploit crops. The effect of colonialism also established industries and commercial ventures for easy exploitation and extraction of raw materials from Nigeria.

Political Impact

It is worthy to note that the indirect rule by the European helps to groom the traditional rulers through there participation in the administration of their respective society which eventually helps in the preparation of self-rule. More so the training received from the colonial master by the ex-servicemen help in the preparation for self-rule.

Social Impact

Socially, the colonial masters alongside the Christian missionaries brought education to Nigeria in 1842. The curriculum of alien education was based on three(3) things which means reading, writing, and arithmetic. Education brought by the colonial master brought together Nigeria of different backgrounds and cultures.

It also brought the English language as an official language in Nigeria serve as a medium of communication among various ethnic groups with different cultures and this brought mutual understanding towards nation-building.


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How to be Self Confident in One Week

How to be Self Confident in One Week

How to Conquer Stage Fright in One Week

Confidence is one thing that one cannot do without in order to be successful in life; it is a sine qua non. Everyone wants to be self-confident. Everyone needs to be self-confident, including you. But how do you achieve self-confidence? How do you get rid of stage fright?

When we see beauty pageants, motivational speakers, and many other public speakers and figures, we admire them and wonder how they managed to be comfortably self-confident, if not overconfident. We ask, ‘how come they have such level of confidence?’

Confidence helps you to stand out and stand firm. It makes you bolder and respected in society. It even makes you popular. Yes! It helps one to overcome stage fright and its tendencies. Stage fright is one thing we all do not want. Everybody wants to speak fluently and confidently on the stage no matter the nature of the activity.

In the University, many students, even brighter ones, encounter the problems that come with stage fright. Most of them do not know what to do. In fact, most students do not even know how they can control this or rather get rid of it. Sadly, brighter students, who know what they are to present, shiver on the presentation ground because they lack the virtue of self-confident.

Some naturally have self-confidence. However, confidence can also be built, developed, enhanced and acquired. You can actually build your self-confidence and then become a better you. The questions are; ‘How do I become self-confident?’ ‘How do I overcome stage fright?’ ‘How do I talk in the public without fidgeting?’ ‘How do I defend my project at school without shaking on the stage?’ These and many related questions and issues will be solved and resolved as you continue to read this article.

Eight Ways to Achieve Self-Confidence in One Week

These are the eight practical and easier ways to be self-confident in one week. Yes! You can achieve Self-Confidence in One Week. You can conquer Stage Fright in just one week of practicing these ideas below.

  1. Be Yourself

The first way to achieve self-confidence is to BE YOURSELF. Love yourself and be kind to yourself. You do this first before people reciprocate. Now, when people love you for who you are, you become comfortable in your own skin.

Confidence comes from within and not without. It proceeds from the internal to external. There is a need for the inside to be built well in order to be radiated from the outside. People can actually smell and spot fakeness from afar no matter how you try to cover it. Not being real is not a lasting way to achieve self-confidence. It will only lead and then bow out. It is temporary. However, being real and true is permanent.

2. Watch and Read Motivational Talks and Show

The second is to occupy yourself with motivational talks and shows. Mind you, positives ones. Now, call this feeding the mind. Do you know that the mind has a way of influencing the body? Whatever you feed your mind each day with is what is acted by your body. A particular saying goes like this “you are what you read”. What you read and hear each day thus defines and influences you.

Motivational talks and books are full of motivation and inspiration. They build your confidence. They tell you actually things you can do and achieve. Grab and feed your mind each day with loads of them.

Years ago, in the early hours of my college year, I was both shy, coy, timid, scared and zero confident but when I grabbed and fed myself with Motivational books, talks and shows, I was transformed. There and then, I became even an orator.

You never can tell. Motivational speakers even give you stories of themselves and others of how they made it. So, embrace them and fill your mind with positivism.

3. Regularly Say ‘I am Powerful, I am Beautiful, I am Strong, I can do it’.

Now, these are three magical statements that have a way of working wonders in building your confidence. Say them constantly and regularly especially when you feel less confident. They just have a way of jerking you up to confidence. The breath positivism. Have you seen a movie titled “Girls Trip”? Recall, Ryan Pierre repeats those exact words whenever she feels down.

In order to conquer stage fright and achieve self-confidence, one needs to be optimistic always rather than pessimistic. Say, I can do it. Do not have any feelings of inabilities.

4. Surround Yourself with Positive Friends and Associations  

Fiends and associations or companies have a way of influencing someone either positively or negatively. So, it is highly recommended that you surround yourself with positive friends, associations, groups, companies etc. in order to grow yourself positively.

Do not surround yourself with dullards and good for nothing. People who always say “I dare not try to do that” or “I bet I cannot do that”. Do not surround yourself with people who talk negatively.

Perhaps, you want to try a debating competition in your school and they say ‘Have you forgotten you have stage fright?’ Or ‘Surely, you will not win’. Distant or rather flee from such people. They will augment the problem. They will make you believe you cannot do it.

Instead, surround yourself with people who encourage and urge you to be the best of yourself, that is, people who continuously say “don’t give up”, “you can do it”.

5. Dress Well

Surely, the way you dress is the way you will be addressed – so says an old adage. And when you are addressed well your confidence increases. Dressing elegantly has an easy way of building your self-confidence.

You will feel special and on top of the world. Supposing you dress in such a nice party outfit for a party event, you perhaps start feeling you are Rihanna or Beyonce. Dressing improves your psychological fitness. And remember, self-confident and stage fright is mind related; they work with the mind, they are psychological in nature.

Now, do well to ensure that you wear the fitting cloths for befitting events. You don’t go wearing party cloth for an interview in a company. wear the appropriate clothes for the appropriate events else people may make jest and mockery of you.

Ensure also, for the ladies, that you wear the right makeups. Figure out what actually fits you and put it on.

6. Move Out

This is another very important element for confidence building. The trick is this, the more outings you go, the more experience you get. The more experience you get, the more you find out your strength and weaknesses, as well as your flaws, and then work on yourself.

The more you work on yourself, the more you improve and the more you improve, the better you become self-confident. Don’t freak out, just move out, get social, meet with and interact with people. The more love, admiration and praises you receive, the better you become.

7. Start Speaking in Public

You can hardly get rid of stage fright without talking in the public frequently. In fact, self-confidence requires a certain level of regular public speeches. Most people who suffer from lack of confidence to speak are always people who do not speak in the public. Most of them think they cannot talk in the public just because they are afraid of making a mistake or they are afraid of the fright that comes up on the stage.

However, if you speak in public regularly, even though you make mistakes at the earlier stages, you gradually become self-confident and shy away from the bondage of stage fright.

8. Always Put up a Smiling Face

You may wonder how ‘smiling’ can help you to achieve self-confidence. Oh Yes! Smiling does a very good and psychological job as always. What happens when you put on a smiling face? Simply, it shows that you are relaxed and you are friendly.

Have you asked why contestants in the beauty pageant smile all through? Do you know that ‘Smiling’ relieves the mind? Yes, smiling comes naturally, but sometimes, you need to make smiling your second nature especially when needed.

In fact, smiling grounds you in the public and it is an essential tool to get connected with the people. One of the things that causes stage fright and lack of confidence is Shyness. Another is timidity. But, when you smile to people, you practically show a very good impression that you are neither timid nor shy to be among them.

When this is done, you feel more relieved to stand and talk without shivering.

Some Make-up Ideas to Conquer Stage Fright

Always Prepare for the task ahead. For instance, if you are to do a presentation, give a speech, defend an academic work, or speak in the public (especially when you are not familiar with the audience), make sure that you are well prepared for the task. If possible, prepare in such a way that you do not need to hold any paper during the speech.

Be bold, be audible, and demonstrate during the speech.


 

Freedom in Ethical Discourse

Freedom in Ethical Discourse

Introduction

Freedom is as old as the existence of man. It is a general term used in everyday activity mostly to express how free one is in his or her actions. But, freedom in ethical discourse cuts across critical and rational discussions alongside many disciplines. This is because, no matter how free man is, everywhere seems to be in chains – Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Freedom comes with personal consciousness to choose to act freely in a certain way rather than the other. Thus, freedom in ethical discourse comes with choice and free will. Hence, one is free to choose or not to choose. But, do you know that “even when one chooses not to choose, he/she ends up making a choice (choosing)”?

However, if there is no policy, there is no freedom, and if there is no freedom, there is no action. To deprive a man of his action is to reduce him to the level of animals. This above statement by Hannals Arendt goes far to emphasis the essentials of man’s freedom as that which authenticate him as a dynamic creature different from brutes and animals.

The Concept of Freedom in Philosophy

Freedom is referred to as “self-evident truth” and it is upon this axiomatic assumption that laws are laid down in human Communities, decisions taken and judgment are passed.

In the history of philosophy and social thought, freedom has a specific use as a moral and a social concept. Generally, it refers either to circumstances which arise in the relations of the world today.

Freedom is likened to be in relation with Right; when one says ‘it is my right to make speeches that please me’, and when one position that ‘I have Freedom of Speech’. In the course of this discourse, the concept of freedom will be clarified and its (freedom) essences make known as coherent as possible. Let’s discuss the different definitions of Freedom.

Definition of Freedom

The various meaning of the term “freedom” centers around three major themes.

  1. The first is the possibility of the subject to act as man wills to satisfy his tendencies, aspiration etc. (freedom of actions as opposed to constraint, servitude etc. civil and political liberties, etc.)
  2. The second is the power of self-determination without any necessitation in willing. If only from the pressure of the nature slightly distinct from the ego (freedom of willing, freewill as opposed to Necessity).
  3. The third is the fulfilment of reasoning subject by the internal domination of reason, of superior motivations over feeling and over inferior motivations (rational freedom).

Freedom is the faculty which man enjoys in determining himself to an action and to bring its cause, after haven taken consciousness of the considerations that such an action carries for life. Man is a free being within and without, beneath and above.

Freedom is man’s true self without which he ceases to be what he is, a being unto God, the image of the creator, the matter of the universe of creations, the dynamic being. For a man to achieve greatness as desired by God, the creator, man has to be free.

Freedom according to Baptista Mundin is “another great window for looking into the mystery of man.” With freedom, man is not only simply the master of his own acts but also of himself. He is the master of his own becoming, more precisely, of that which he will become, an honest citizen, a laborious worker, a generous woman, an Ernest mother.

Freedom implies the dignity, the excellence and nobility of the human person, without which life for the individual is altered and for the society, a total chaos and the general state of anarchy. Man’s freedom is not only a quality describing an aspect of his life but the dynamics of his being, a power giving direction and meaning to the very value that man holds the most desirable life.

Types of Freedom

There are two types of freedom. They are as follows;

  1. Exercise Freedom
  2. Specification Freedom

Note: There are many other types of freedom according to different categories. But, we shall be discussing the two mentioned above.

Exercise Freedom

Freedom of exercise is that between contradictory alternatives; it is the freedom of an agent to act or not to act in an absolute sense. In any given situation, a man who is rational can will to act or will not to act. Man has this sort of freedom as a voluntary agent always, and here, freedom relates to the interior act of willing or not willing by the moral agent. The voluntary act and the free act, for all practical purposes, are identical.

Specification Freedom

On the other hand, freedom of specification presupposes freedom of exercise and looks further to some objects specifying the act to be done by the agent. It is the choice of this alternative rather than that or, more precisely, the choice of this means in relation to a desired end.

The free act as a choice, therefore, is concerned with means properly, not with ends as ends. To will an end as an end is not a matter of choice but a matter of simple willing; an act of the will which centers precisely on the means is the act of choice. When reference is made to human freedom in a moral context, it is usually this freedom of specification that is meant.

Many philosophers have contributed to the definition of the term “freedom” from the ancient era of philosophy.

Kinds or Forms of Freedom

  1. Physical Freedom

This is a man’s freedom from external constraint; that is freedom from all kinds and forms of oppressive force against man’s choice and voluntariness. This physical freedom is the immunity from physical constriction.

2. Moral Freedom

This is the absence of constriction through oppressive force of moral order such as reward, punishments, laws, and threats; it is the power to choose and to determine oneself. However, man’s freedom is the freedom of choice of moral goodness, to choose the good and to avoid evil. Meanwhile, the fear of the aftermaths of man’s action makes him act in an opposite direction, he acts for good to receive reward and praise, but if he acts contrary to the good, he receives punishments.

3. Psychological Freedom

Psychological freedom is man’s capacity to choose to do anything when all the necessary conditions for acting are present. It is the sovereign control over the situation by which the will holds in its hands the power to make the choice fall in favour of one of the various alternative possibilities.

Psychological freedom, therefore, is the absence of pressure on the part of other human activities on our will, intellect or passion to perform acts in a determined way “man is a social being, open to values and communication with others and as such to be free from social influence and is, therefore, to be psychologically free.

4. Political Freedom

Political freedom is the absence of any form of political pressure of man. It is the freedom of the citizens of the state to exercise their political rights uninhabited. These include the basics of political rights, the right to vote, the right to hold office, the right to participate in making political decisions, the right to associate with others of like views and to criticize the government.

5. Social Freedom

This is the freedom from social determinism; it is the freedom of socialization and the absorption of the growth of the functions of groups, associations, and institutions having religious, social, economic, cultural, professional and political ends which operates for the good of the states.

The examination of the various kinds of freedom, clarifies to some extent what we mean by the term freedom, as that faculty which man enjoys determining himself to an action and to being its cause and author. Form the ongoing; we can see that freedom touches every aspect of man’s life. In this vein, Mundin says that freedom is “an unequivocal sign of man’s physical and spiritual dimension.”

The Essence of Freedom

The proof of the existence of freedom is necessary, in the sense of its validity beyond experience or any philosophical and scientific claims against its existence. The essence of freedom elucidates the need of man having or obtaining freedom. It explains the importance of freedom to man.

Firstly, freedom enables man to choose on which actions or activities to follow. This act of choice is one of the attributes of a human being. This is because one of the reasons for man’s rationality is to be able to dictate the good and the bad and having the right or freedom to make a choice. This, therefore, explains man as not being a total determined being.

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Secondly, freedom allows the human conformability. This is because in freedom one becomes comfortable and should be held responsible for his actions, hence the advent of the moral agent.

The comfortability here is that the moral agent is no more on determinism of something or mandatory doing something. Here, the human person exercises an act of choosing to do or not to do and at his or her own convenient time.

Thirdly, freedom enables us to participate in the human activities and on this, we exercise over fundamental human right especially in the political aspect of freedom. It also enables us to associate, socialize and interacts with other creatures in the human environment. It also puts into our consciousness, the right to choose the religion of our choice and participate in its activities.

Fourthly, freedom widens our knowledge in knowing some of our right and what is not our right in the society at large. Through this means, freedom can be said to be a form of education to human being. It is through it that we gained the opportunity of searching and researching for what will help in the skyrocketing of human being beings and its environment.

Conclusion

Freedom plays a significant role in the relationship between one and another. In other words, freedom is an important concept which works with consciousness and choice.

Drawing from the above explanations, one could attest that Freedom is though guided, moderated and regulated by the laws and rules set up in the society, but its essences are moreover unlimited both in ethics and other disciplines.


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Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

The Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

Discourse on the human condition is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives.  About the human conditions, one talks about the characteristics, key events and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict and mortality. When we do not take the human condition to be non-philosophical, this term is typically used to show the meaning of life and moral concerns.

The palingenesis of this contemporary discourse is not only a contemporary challenge but a perennial issue. How do these conditions imply moral judgments and have their roots in the existence of man? These are pertinent questions which need to be answered.

As we see. This study again introduces the notion of moral responsibility and we cannot unite the notion of the philosophical discourse on human conditions with the issue of moral responsibility. What we should do then would be to take the term, human conditions, in its non-philosophical extension which covers the issue of moral concerns.

We cannot discuss moral responsibility without bringing in the notion of freedom and responsibility. Thus, we are forced to bring in the concept of freedom and responsibility into the notion of the human condition. This makes us add freedom and rationality as part of the human condition which implies moral responsibility.

The problem identified here is how a man acts without concern and check about his morality when his actions are critically evaluated. If a man possesses freedom and rationality, why do not these work in synergy? Why does not rationality keep a check on freewill to remind it that it is about to perform actions that are going to be evaluated?

The universality of rationality and free will is put into question where if these are universal, why do some people act irrationally and others do the opposite? The actions which result from the laissez-a-faire attitude of man has contributed lots of problems which are experienced in the society and to which the solution appears to not be near.

The purpose of this study, therefore, is to cause an introspection and re-introspection on the actions we carry out and make a conscious effort to remind ourselves that our end is still revolving around our human condition, which is death. Thus, we need to make a mark and make an impact before we faze out of existence.

On the significance of this study, one can identify that man will begin to tend towards producing positive results and recreating himself. Call to mind that this is an anthropological study which starts from man and ends in man and so the effect will only be seen in the attitude of man.

The Human Condition

Man has been conceived over the ages to be many things and has got many attributes to himself. He has been seen as homo erectus, homo faber, homo religious, homo loquens etc and these constitute man and show the conditions which make him act the way he does.

Because man is religious, we can say and understand when he performs religious activities and so, likewise other actions. On being responsible for the actions he takes, we allude blames and praises to man for the actions done because he possesses freedom and rationality (voluntas et ratio).

These are attributes that are so concomitant with the man that any attempt to reduce any in whatever form would be dangerous and would arise to a new class of man. And that is why we have amoral beings, who cannot be blamed for the actions they take.

Although these may lay claims to being humans, we now count them off from the scope of morality because they possess neither freedom to act nor rationality.

Implication for Moral Responsibility

However, Fisher and Ravizza give requirements for the responsibility of an action and according to them what epistemic requirements for being morally responsible for performing an action are not also requirements for performing another action.

We must note that there are philosophers who believe that there are epistemic requirements for being morally responsible for actions that are not requirements for freely acting because they assume that Fisher has shown this is so.

Our responsibility is much greater than we might have supposed because it involves all mankind and by the very nature of our being man and by the possession of attributes which establish him to be able to receive blame and praise for whatever action he may take.

On morality, Zimmeran proposes that the consequences of one’s actions- even those that are actually foreseen do not add anything to the degree of worthiness of blame, over and above that accrues to her in virtue of deciding to perform a wrong action. And supporting Zimmeran’s view and defends the idea that occurrence and awareness of wrongdoing is necessary for blameworthiness.

One must then tend to say that (moral) responsibility is very closely linked with freedom and designates a person’s moral accountability for one’s actions. Liz can be responsible for an action only if it is really hers, only if its true cause is to be found in what makes of Liz a subject who is capable of self-determination. Before being responsible before others, Liz is responsible before herself.

The human conditions here focuses on the series of events that man has experienced and has formed him to be able to withstand the bad parts of life. Through the journey of man, he acquires attributes and tendencies that make him eligible to stand for moral judgment.

What is to be Done?

With the realization of man’s eligibility to stand for moral judgments because of his possession of freedom and rationality, there is a need to put each of our actions under thorough scrutiny before eventual execution so that we may not be found wanting in moral judgments. We must reflect on the consequences of our actions because there seems no escape route except answering for our actions once the deed has been done. 

Conclusion

The human conditions we have identified in the course of this study puts man on the moral judgment road and he must be wary of his actions these conditions and attributes have established him as a moral agent who stands trial for whatever at he does.


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