Human Histology of the Bone

Human Histology of the Bone

Introduction

Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that exhibits four types of cells: osteoclasts, bone lining cells, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Bone exerts important functions in the body, such as locomotion, support, and protection of soft tissues, calcium and phosphate storage, and harboring of bone marrow. Despite its inert appearance, bone is a highly dynamic organ that is continuously reabsorbed by osteoclasts and reformed by osteoblasts. There is evidence that osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of this bone remodeling process. This is introduction to the histology of the bone.

The function of bone lining cells is not well clear, but these cells seem to play an important role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation. Bone remodeling is a highly complex process by which old bone is replaced by new bone, in a cycle comprised of three phases:

  1. Initiation of bone resorption by osteoclasts,
  2. The transition (or reversal period) from resorption to new bone formation, and
  3. The bone formation by osteoblasts.

This process occurs due to coordinated actions of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells which together, form the temporary anatomical structure called basic multicellular unit (BMU). Normal bone remodeling is necessary for fracture healing and skeleton adaptation to mechanical use, as well as for calcium homeostasis.

On the other hand, an imbalance of bone resorption and formation results in several bone diseases. For example, excessive resorption by osteoclasts without the corresponding amount of nerformed bone by osteoblasts contributes to bone loss and osteoporosis, whereas the contrary may result in osteopetrosis.

Recent studies have shown that bone influences the activity of other organs and the bone is also influenced by other organs and systems of the body, providing new insights and evidencing the complexity and dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review we will address the current data about bone cells biology, bone matrix, and the factors that influence the bone remodeling process. Moreover, we will briefly discuss the role of estrogen on bone tissue under physiological and pathological conditions.

HIstology of Human bone.. structure, shapes, forms , types, functions
Shapes of Bones

Bone Cells

Osteoblasts

Osteoblasts are cuboidal cells that are located along the bone surface comprising 4–6% of the total resident bone cells and are largely known for their bone-forming function. These cells show morphological characteristics of protein-synthesizing cells, including abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and prominent Golgi apparatus, as well as various secretory vesicles. As polarized cells, the osteoblasts secrete the osteoid toward the bone matrix. Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

The commitment of MSC towards the osteoprogenitor lineage requires the expression of specific genes, following timely programmed steps, including the synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and members of the Wingless (Wnt) pathways. The expressions of Runt related transcription factors 2, Distal-less home box 5 (Dlx5), and osterix (Osx) are crucial for osteoblast differentiation.

Additionally, Runx2 is a master gene of osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the fact that Runx2-null mice are devoid of osteoblasts. Runx2 has demonstrated to upregulate osteoblast-related genes such as ColIA1, ALP, BSP, BGLAP, and OCN. Once a pool of osteoblast progenitors expressing Runx2and ColIA1 has been established during osteoblast differentiation, there is a proliferation phase.

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In this phase, osteoblast progenitors show alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and are considered preosteoblasts. There is evidence that other factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), microRNAs, and connexin 43 play important roles in osteoblast differentiation. FGF-2knockoutmice showed a decreased bone mass coupled to an increase of adipocytes in the bone marrow, indicating the participation of FGFs in the osteoblast differentiation. It has also been demonstrated that FGF-18 upregulates osteoblast differentiation in an autocrine mechanism.

MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression in many cell types, including osteoblasts, in which some microRNAs stimulate and others inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Connexin 43 is known to be the main connexin in bone. The mutation in the gene encoding connexin 43 impairs osteoblast differentiation and causes skeletal malformation in mice. The synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts occurs in two main steps: deposition of organic matrix and its subsequent mineralization.

In the first step, the osteoblasts secrete collagen proteins, mainly type I collagen, noncollagenous proteins (OCN, osteonectin, BSP II, and osteopontin), and proteoglycan including decorin and biglycan, which form the organic matrix. Thereafter, mineralization of bone matrix takes place into two phases: the vesicular and the fibrillar phases. The vesicular phase occurs when portions with a variable diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm, called matrix vesicles, are released from the apical membrane domain of the osteoblasts into the newly formed bone matrix in which they bind to proteoglycans and other organic components.

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Because of its negative charge, the sulfated proteoglycans immobilize calcium ions that are stored within the matrix vesicles. When osteoblasts secrete enzymes that degrade the proteoglycans, the calcium ions are released from the proteoglycans and cross the calcium channels presented in the matrix vesicle membrane. These channels are formed by proteins called annexins. On the other hand, phosphate-containing compounds are degraded by the ALP secreted by osteoblasts, releasing phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles. Then, the phosphate and calcium ions inside the vesicles nucleate, forming the hydroxyapatite crystals.

The fibrillar phase occurs when the supersaturation of calcium and phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles leads to the rupture of these structures and the hydroxyapatite crystals spread to the surrounding matrix. Mature osteoblasts appear as a single layer of cuboidal cells containing abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and large Golgi complex. Some of these osteoblasts show cytoplasmic processes towards the bone matrix and reach the osteocyte processes. At this stage, the mature osteoblasts can undergo apoptosis or become osteocytes or bone lining cells.

Interestingly, round/ovoid structures containing dense bodies and TUNEL-positive structures have been observed inside osteoblast vacuoles. These findings suggest that besides professional phagocytes, osteoblasts are also able to engulf and degrade apoptotic bodies during alveolar bone formation. Bone Lining Cells. Bone lining cells are quiescent flat-shaped osteoblasts that cover the bone surfaces, where neither bone resorption nor bone formation occurs.

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These cells exhibit a thin and flat nuclear profile; its cytoplasm extends along the bone surface and displays few cytoplasmic organelles such as profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Some of these cells show processes extending into canaliculi, and gap junctions are also observed between adjacent bone lining cells and between these cells and osteocytes.

The secretory activity of bone lining cells depends on the bone physiological status, whereby these cells can reacquire their secretory activity, enhancing their size, and adopting a cuboidal appearance. Bone lining cells functions are not completely understood, but it has been shown that these cells prevent the direct interaction between osteoclasts and bone matrix, when bone resorption should not occur, and also participate in osteoclast differentiation, producing osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).

Moreover, the bone lining cells, together with other bone cells, are an important component of the BMU, an anatomical structure that is present during the bone remodeling cycle.

Types of Cartilage

  1. Hyaline Cartilage:
  2. Elastic cartilage
  3. Fibrocartilage

Hyaline Cartilage

They have identical form, covered by Perichondrium. They are Matrix formed by the Chondrocyte, the matrix is subdivided into two types:- Territorial and Interterritorial.

This is similar to hyaline cartilage. The matrix contain more elastic fibers as well as elastic fibers as well as type II collagen fibers.

Fibro-cartilage

This is different from Hyaline or Elastic. The chondrocytes are differentiated from fibrocytes.

Cartilage Growth

Cartilage grows by two different processes: Interstitial growth and Appositional growth

a. Interstitial growth: This involves the division of existing chondrocytes. It is important in the formation of the fetal skeleton and continues in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages.

b. Appositional growth: This involves the differentiation of chondroblasts and stem cells on the inner surface of the perichondrium into chondrocytes. It is responsible for increasing the girth of the cartilage masses.

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Bone

The Bone tissue is rich in blood supply. It is a type of connective tissue with calcified matrix.

Functions

  1. It supports and protects
  2. Has Bone marrow.
  3. It is an important storage site for calcium and other essential minerals.

Surfaces

  1. The outer surfaces
  2. Sharpey’s fibers
  3. The internal surfaces of bones are covered by a thin, condensed reticular connective tissue (endosteum) that contain bone (endosteum) that contains bone and blood, cell precursors.
  4. The endosteum lines the marrow cavity and sends extensions into the haversian canals.

Components of Bone:

Osteogeneic cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts. Organic and non-organic collagen type I fibers.

Osteogenic (Osteoprogenitor) cells

  • Mesenchymal stem cells, Small spindle-shaped cells with pale cytoplasm and ovoid nuclei.
  • Osteoblast precursors have sparse RER and Golgi complexes.
  • Osteoclast precursors have abundant free ribosomes and mitochondria.

Osteoblasts:

Found in the periosteum and endosteum. They have large rounded or cuboidal cells, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, well-developed RER and Golgi; and eccentric nucleus. They synthesize and secrete organic components. Osteoblasts mature and are called osteocytes.

Osteocytes

Theirs Cells are branched, smaller than osteoblasts, and not divide. They found in cavities in the bone matrix called lacunae. Processes (branches) extend into canaliculi in the calcified matrix. The cells are isolated. They Contact one another through gap junctions. Located near bone surfaces. They maintain bone matrix. The death of osteocytes results in bone resorption.

Osteoclasts

They lie on bony surfaces in Hawship’s lacunae. Have Large multinucleated cells. Acidophilic, cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and Acidophilic cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and mitochondria and well developed Golgi complex; and brush border of plasma-membrane facing the bone marrow.  Cells release acid, collagenase, and in other lytic enzymes into the compartments; these break down bone matrix and release minerals, a process called bone resorption, Ossification (Bone formation). The bone is formed from mesenchymal embryonic tissue by two ways:

  1. Intra-membranous ossification
  2. Endochondral ossification

Intra-Membranous Ossification:

Ossification center in the form of increased vascularity, condensation of mesenchymal cells. The mesenchymal cells osteogenic cells. The osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts; which synthesize the organic component of bone matrix (collagen, glycoprotein). The osteoblasts secrete an enzyme which stimulates calcium salts to the calcified matrix. The bone matrix grows in the membrane, vascular tissues differentiate into hematopoietic tissue (bone marrow). A layer of vascular mesenchyme forming periosteum.  The osteogenic stem cells in the periosteum differentiate to osteoblasts, which start to lay down or arrange bone lamellae (compact bone).

Endochondral Ossification:

  • Cartilage model: The embryonic mesenchymal cells -condensed. It is differentiated from chondroblasts, chondrocytes, and cartilage matrix.
  • Primary centers of ossification: Some changes have been developed. The Chondrocytes in the middle of the cartilage model enlarged, and calcium salts become to deposit around the lacunae. Chondrocytes die due to the prevention of nutrient diffusion through the calcified matrix, leaving empty spaces.
  • The perichondrium becomes highly vascular and active and changed to the periosteum, where the inner vascular osteogenic cells differentiate to osteoblasts.
  • The osteoblasts start to lay down a collar of compact bone around the shaft called sub-periosteal collar of bone.
  • The periosteum forms a periosteal bud, which is consists of capillaries, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
  • The vascular bud invades the subperiosteal bone by osteoclasts.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down forming the primary bone marrow cavity.
  • As the periosteal bud invades bone and cartilage, the osteoblasts arrange themselves along the marrow spaces and start to lay down bone matrix
  • Marrow spaces joint together forming a central regular cavity in the middle of diaphysis.
  • The microscopic structure of the developing endochondral bones is characterized by 5 overlapping zones:
    • The zone of resting cartilage is composed of typical hyaline cartilage and is farthest from the primary marrow cavity.
    • The zone of proliferation contains columns of flattened chondrocytes.
    • In the zone of hypertrophy, the chondrocytes in the columns are enlarged and rounded.
    • The zone of calcification is characterized by a more basophilic matrix. There is often a significant overlap between zones 3 and 4, which are sometimes referred to as a single zone of hypertrophy and calcification.
    • The zone of ossification borders directly on the primary marrow cavity. It is characterized by intensely acidophilic osteoid, osteocytes within the bone matrix, and a monolayer of basophilic osteoblasts.

K. Matsuo and N. Irie, “Osteoclast-osteoblast communication,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 473, no. 2, pp. 2

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NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

Following the global outbreak of the deadly corona virus, which has threatened the Iives of people in the world including our beloved country Nigeria. On the 18th March 2020, there was a general order for the lock down of all NYSC Orientation camp across the Nation. It was not so happy a thing to the Batch A Stream 1 corps members who were asked to vacate the camp immediately. Although they corps members were posted to their various place of primary assignment, the measures taken was to help limit the possible avenue for the spread of the virus.

As the third line in the first stanza of the NYSC anthem quotes “Under the sun or in the rain”. The Platoon 6 Batch A stream 1 corps members deployed to Nasarawa State have continued their Orientation course in another form. They have fortified its WhatsApp platform with Guiding Principles to help bring discipline and sanity amongst them. They have an Outline of Programs that runs for 9hours daily. All these are of the vision to help build up their Human Capacity  towards Nation’s building.

In an interview with the Platoon leader, in the person of Franklyn Nwosu, who is a Philosophy graduate from the prestigious Claretian Institute of Philosophy Nekede, Owerri, Imo State. He said the platoon has its motto as “We are the best to serve Nigeria” and have promised to lead the Platoon to the actualization of this both in camp and outside the camp for the Nation building.

In his words of acknowledgement, he thanked the President of the  Federal Republic of Nigeria, Muhammad Buhari, the Executive Governor of Nasarawa State Engr. Abdullahi Sule, the Minister of Youth & Sports Mr. Stanley Dare, the Director General of the NYSC Brig. Gen. S. Ibrahim, the Nasarawa State NYSC Coordinator Mr. Stephen Gabriel Dewan, The NYSC Keffi Camp Director Mr. Tomori Olabode Felix and all NYSC staff.

He appreciated the esteem efforts of the Nasarawa NYSC state coordinator, the camp Director and the platoon 6 officers whose morning advise & admonishment helped strengthen them to undertake this tax.

He went further to say that the corona virus will never be a barrier for corps members to serve their fatherland, Nigeria.

The Platoon Program manager, Diogu Coda a graduate of Criminology/Psychology from Nasarawa State University spoke to us in an explanation on how the platoon has been undergoing the Online Orientation Courses which are inline with the NYSC SCHEME since 23rd March 2020. In his Explanations he said;

1. Business Monday

The business Monday is an opportunity created for the members of the platoon who have legit businesses doing to advertise their products or business and make presentations for people to patronize or make referrals. The aim of this program is to help boost and patronize our various handworks.

2. Tuesday Entrepreneurship Workshop

This program is held every Tuesday, and is anchored or moderated by the corps members who have entrepreneurship skills. Skills taught includes; Ankara Craft work, Fashion Designing, Catering services, Graphic designing, Mechanized Agriculture; Fish farming, poultry, Dog farm etc. We also have quiz/Brain teasers session and winners are awarded with airtime to their different networks. The aim of this program is for us to acquire a spirit of self reliance, developing skills for self employment. Anchors of this program are: Tamaraleyefa Blessing (Ankara craft), Jamiu Hammad Adelani (Fish farming), Diogu Coda (Dog Farming), Fadiyimu Stella (Fashion Designing), Asade George (Graphic designing), Ojone Julius (Catering services).

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3. Wednesday (Symposium/ Lectures)

So far we have discussed various topics during the cause of this program like; Corona Virus in Nigeria; Science & Religion the way forward, Impact on Nasarawa state; help build Nigeria, Automation & Robotics; Threat or a prompt to poverty eradication?, 5G Network; Good or Bad for Nigeria development. The aim of this program is to find a way to contribute to the growth of the National economy and make corp members amenable for national Interest. Anchors are: Daniel Adeniran, Nkem Happiness, Diogu Coda, Sunday Ojo.

4. Thursday (Battle of the Sexes)

This is a reality show, as we have discussed so far many contemporary issues as it concerns the both sexes like; Causes and effect of Matrimonial Abuse, Sexual assault/ Molestation; who is to be blamed?, Male superiority and female inferiority. The aim of this program is to help the both sexes to know each other well for a harmonious and habitable society. Anchors are: Salako Bolaji, Fesobi Deborah, Nwosu Franklyn, Ojone Julius.

5. Friday (TGIF Breakout Session)

There are five (5) Sessions, the platoon breaks out each person joins a session with a topic of interest;  Zero Hunger, No Poverty, Quality education, Good Health and well being, Clean water & Sanitation. At the end, each session make a report back to the general platform. The aim of this program is to inculcate discipline, patriotic and loyal service to Nigeria in any situation we find ourselves. It is inform of the normal Community development Service (CDS) Program. Anchors are: Asade George, Nicholet Emeka, Zaniab Aliyu, Edet Bisbong.

6. Saturday (Intercultural Dialogue)

Many topics have been discussed and studied in this program like; Improving Nigerians unity through cultural understanding, Unity in diversity, one color one people. This program have given avenue for inter tribe Language, culture and tradition learning. The aim of this program is to develop a common tie amongst us and promote National unity and integration and to clear prejudice, bias and eliminate ignorance to have a first hand the similarities amongst the Nigerian ethnic groups.

7. Sunday (Social Night/ Feedback)

On this day the group has a liberal group for more socialization, making jokes and sharing funny experiences. Mostly, share camp experiences. As Socrates would say “An unexamined life is not worth living”, we also use this opportunity to make judgement over the program performance from the previous week to enable build and make better program the upper week.

The platoon leader, Franklyn Nwosu also uses this medium to call on other platoon leaders in their various capacity, try to Make this dream come to a reality, not letting the youths that have gone home to just remain relaxed and have nothing doing. They could use this opportunity to groom themselves also in line with what the NYSC has in mind for us and with this at hand we can truly impact positively to Nigeria.

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Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Globally, there has been a terrific uproar among humans about the emergence of 5G Network and its mysterious connection with the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and Antichrist. A lot has been said and discussed about this development. But, in this wonderful article, there will be an intensive, educational and engaging discourse on Covid-19 & 5G Network, how they are connected, the truth behind the development, the need, relevance, importance, function, role and implication of 5G Network to the global and contemporary society.

Corona Virus

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 Coronavirus pandemic. 

Common symptoms include fevercough and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle paindiarrhoeasore throatloss of smell and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 6 April 2020, more than 1,280,000cases of have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in more than 70,500 deaths. More than 270,000 people have recovered.

The 5G Network

5G is a new kind of network: a platform for innovations that will not only enhances today’s mobile broadband services but will also expand mobile networks to support a vast diversity of devices and services and connect new industries with improved performance, efficiency, and cost. 5G will redefine a broad range of industries with connected services from retail to education, transportation to entertainment, and everything in between. We see 5G as technology as transformative as the automobile and electricity.

 In general, 5G use cases can be broadly categorized into three main types of connected services:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband: 5G will not only make our smartphones better, but it will also usher in new immersive experiences, such as VR and AR, with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and cost-per-bit.
  • Mission-Critical communications: 5G will enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable/available, low latency links—such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
  • Massive Internet of Things: 5G will seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power and mobility to provide extremely lean/low-cost solutions.

The Need, Importance, Relevance & Implication of 5G Network

Global Importance

The spectrum used for mobile communications is becoming congested. Current networks cannot always meet consumer demands for data. During periods of heavy use, consumers may experience slow speeds, unstable connections, delays, or loss of service. The effects can range from annoyances like a streaming movie freezing to life-threatening transmission delays between first responders in an emergency.

Importance on Economy, Technology and Business

The demand for data will continue to grow as the number of devices connected to the internet grows. The number of smartphone users in the United States has increased from nearly 63 million in 2010 to an estimated 238 million in 2018. In 2018 there were 17.8 billion connected devices globally, 7 billion of which were connected devices such as smart home equipment. By 2025 the total number of connected devices is projected to exceed 34 billion.

Importance on Industries as related to Business

Industries and consumers will rely on 5G networks to power the devices and transmit the data that drive their daily activities. They will need networks that can provide constant connections, minimal lag times, increased bandwidth to access and share data, and the ability to quickly compile and compute data.

Importance on the Healthcare Sector

In the health care sector, 5G could enable services such as remote patient monitoring, consultation, and even remote surgery. In transportation, 5G will be the backbone that autonomous vehicles rely on. A 2017 study from Deloitte estimated, “self-driving cars enabled by wireless connectivity could reduce emissions by 40-90%, travel times by nearly 40% and delays by 20%.” Before every pandemic of the last 150 years, there was a quantum leap in the electrification of the Earth.

The Conspiracy Theory on Covid-19 & 5G Network

While a conspiracy theory might be taken to mean any explanation of an event or situation involving a conspiracy, in popular usage (as opposed to technical legal usage) the term carries the pejorative connotation that the appeal to a conspiracy is implausible and based on prejudice or insufficient evidence.

Conspiracy theories resist falsification and are reinforced by circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy and an absence of evidence for it are re-interpreted as evidence of its truth, whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved.

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Research suggests that conspiracist ideation belief in conspiracy theories can be psychologically harmful or pathological and that it is highly correlated with psychological projectionparanoia and Machiavellianism.

In the thesis statement of a YouTube video with the innocuous title “Dr. Thomas Cowan, M.D. Discusses the Coronavirus.” The 10-minute video features a man lecturing in front of a whiteboard. It looks like any other low-budget conference video, but that thesis—that pandemics are linked to the “electrification” of the Earth—got certain people’s attention. The video, which was posted March 18, has now been watched more than 660,000 times and has inspired a rather curious, rather dangerous conspiracy theory that the New 5G mobile networks are causing the spread of COVID-19.

5G mobile networks promise faster transmission speeds and lower latency. They’ve been the centrepiece of commercials from various mobile carriers, and they have become a battleground for technological dominance between the United States and China. In 2019, the Trump administration announced their plan for “winning the race” for 5G, and tech sources bemoaned that the United States had fallen behind China in 5G development. Some of the first 5G networks were activated in 2019, and that newness is how 5G somehow got linked to COVID-19 in some people’s minds.

But while the circumstances of this specific conspiracy are unique, the links between mobile networks and disease are a prime example of how history repeats itself. Almost every new wireless infrastructure gets linked to disease in one form or another.

A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

There seems to be a high level of disagreement to claims that there is a link between the 5G network, Coronavirus and anti-Christ. For the past few days, popular pastors and politicians have found a way to link the 5G network with spiritual things and Coronavirus epidemic.

Recall that Oyakhilome, a Nigerian Pastor, told his members in a sermon that the 5G was part of the new world order  where some figures of authority in the world were trying to build a religion, economy and government for the entire universe.Quoting Revelation Chapter 13, he said there is no need for a vaccine, adding that these are part of the Antichrist’s plan for a new world order.

However, Ashimolowo, another Nigerian Clergyman,  countered Oyakilome’s statement, explaining that there was no correlation between 5G and end-time signs.

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Mathew Ashimolowo warned Christians not to join Christian leaders in promoting conspiracy theories. According to him, all those claims were conspiracy theories that had nothing to do with the anti-Christ. He maintained that COVID-19 was a pandemic and must be dealt with as such.

“If coronavirus is caused by 5G, why is it in his village that does not have a 5G?

“It has always been the nature of Christian leaders to plant fear in their members whenever there was going to be a major world occurrence. The church should be more concerned about preparing their members for the Second Coming of the Lord instead of condemning a major technological breakthrough.

It’s fake news to associate 5G to coronavirus.

COVID-19 AND ISOLATION: Leprosy as a case study

Leprosy was the scourge of the ancient world. Nothing evoked more fear, more dread, or more revulsion than the sight of these walking dead. That is what a leper was called, a walking dead man. The smell of his decaying flesh would announce his coming long before the tattered scraps of his clothing would be seen, or his raspy “Unclean! Unclean!” announcement he was required to declare, could be heard. The stumbling shuffle of toeless feet, the wandering of sightless eyes and the moan of a cheek less mouth, all pointed to Leprosy, this unseen attacker that slowly destroyed human bodies, and made the individual an untouchable to society.

Leprosy is a vivid and graphic physical picture of the spiritual defilement of sin. Sin is ugly, loathsome, incurable, and contaminating; it separates men from God and makes them outcasts. The instructions given to the priests in Leviticus 13 help us understand the nature of sin: Sin is inside us, deeper than the skin (Leviticus 13:3); sin also spreads (Leviticus 13:8); sin always defiles.

Evaluation and Conclusion

I urge each and every one of us to discard this concept and idea of always reconciling societal issues, necessary human conditions and experience with Religion. The Christianity we practice today should display an exemplary with the teachings of Christ and religious leaders should focus on the preparation of their members to embrace the second coming of our Lord Christ rather than promoting fake propaganda.

I keep on asking the world this question; The Christianity we practice today is it the same Christianity that the followers of Christ practiced and they were called Christ-like people in Antioch of Pisidia? Why do we always link everything to religion! Few years back Ebola was a pandemic disease that faced some part of the world, Africa precisely but through God’s intervention it came to pass.

During the time of Christ, Leprosy disease was also a threat to humanity but when the untouchable is touched by Jesus (cf. Leviticus 13:42), “Immediately the leprosy left him and he was cured.” ‘‘They were tempted to put their security in their own possessions and in their political alliances with other nations rather than in God. Hosea called his people to return to God to receive pardon, healing, and restoration. God does not abandon us; God goes with us, even now in this time of trial and testing.

In this moment, it is important for us to anchor our hearts in the hope that we have in Jesus Christ and reconcile with God seeking for forgiveness of sins. Now is the time to intensify our prayers and sacrifices for the love of God and the love of our neighbour.

The Effect of Neocolonialism on Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

The Effect of Neocolonialism on Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

What better word portrays the act of the leaders of the country, Nigeria? Several studies on the theme of neocolonialism have been conducted and are still going on to examine the impact of neocolonialism on developing countries in Africa as the case may be. Also, we shall discuss the negative effects of neocolonialism, the impact of neocolonialism in Africa, the effect of neocolonialism in politics, and the present status of African societies.

To understand how neocolonialism has impacted the developing country of Africa, Nigeria, it will be imperative to understand the present status quo in Africa societies.

With that in mind, it is no news that Africa is a stricken and misery society. It is also no secret that Africa is wallowing extremely well behind other developing nations in Asia and South America and definitely behind western civilization the united state and Western Europe.

Neocolonialism in Africa
Neocolonialism in Nigeria
Neocolonialism

Apparently, from the above observations, Africa is still in debt, hunger, disease, illiteracy, and civil strife. To a very reasonable extent, many argue that the condition in Africa is, in fact, worse today than it was at the end of colonialism under the European nation in the 1960s and 1970s. Observing the living condition of the rapidly growing population, it is apparent that this is actually the case.

 Tracing the cause of the problem, Mard (1978), noted that the foundation of today’s conditions in Africa was laid long ago by European through violence, slavery, and colonization.

It is worthy of note to mention that many African nationalist and critic of colonialism see the independence gain from the withdrawing colonial power only partial liberation, some call it falls independence.

Africa nations are said to be currently in a phrase of neocolonialism, a new form of imperial rule stage-managed by the colonial power to give the colonies the illusion of freedom. Western power still controls the African nations whose rulers are either willing puppets or involuntary subordinates of this power.

In the case of Nigeria, which is the case study of this article, since Britain dismantled its colonial administration in Nigeria on October 1, 1960, Nigeria has come to be regarded throughout Africa as a classic case of Neocolonialism state.

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The reasons for these attitudes are to be found in some of the development of Nigeria before and after the countries attainment of political independence.

One of the first moves in a conscious effort to prepare Nigeria for eventual independence was the introduction of a new constitution. The Richard constitution of 1945, a constitution named in honor of its proponent, Sir Arthur Richards who was then the Governor of Nigeria.

The essence of neocolonialism is that the state which is subjected to it is, in theory, independent and has all the outward trappings of international sovereignty. In reality its economic system and thus its political policy is directed from outside.

Nkrumah argues that neocolonialism was conceived as a measure of remedying a potentially dangerous situation that confronted the rich capitalist Western Europe after war world 1. Before the war the ‘great guff between the few rich and the many poor’ in the capitalist country of Europe has forced some alliance between colonial subjects and workers in the capitalist centers. (Nkrumah 1965).

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Most of this effects include;

  1. It leads to death due to the cooperation of Neocolonialism in the LDC like importing expired drugs civil war etc where developed countries sell weapons to the fighting of summation.
  2. It leads to the perpetuation of economic exploitation of the LDC’s (Least Development)by big power that usually tended to exploit resources for their benefit by using their back door; hence LDCs tend to stagnate economically.
  3. It leads to economic dependence and problem due to export and import economy, harsh economic condition part by developing countries to the LDCs and control of the world market in wish the prices of agricultural materials from LDCs keep on changing due to price inflation.
  4. It perpetuates cultural imperialism/imposition western culture in LDCs were by people of the LDCs tend to adopt follow, respect, and obey the culture of Europeans such as dressing style, marriage, eating style, and neglecting their own culture.

Impact of Colonialism and Post Colonialism in Nigeria

The British colonial authority involve in agriculture for the production of certain crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, rubber, groundnut, hide and skin, with the production of this agricultural crops, new cash crops were introduced so that the inhabitant will no longer rely on food crops but also to exploit crops. The effect of colonialism also established industries and commercial ventures for easy exploitation and extraction of raw materials from Nigeria.

Political Impact

It is worthy to note that the indirect rule by the European helps to groom the traditional rulers through there participation in the administration of their respective society which eventually helps in the preparation of self-rule. More so the training received from the colonial master by the ex-servicemen help in the preparation for self-rule.

Social Impact

Socially, the colonial masters alongside the Christian missionaries brought education to Nigeria in 1842. The curriculum of alien education was based on three(3) things which means reading, writing, and arithmetic. Education brought by the colonial master brought together Nigeria of different backgrounds and cultures.

It also brought the English language as an official language in Nigeria serve as a medium of communication among various ethnic groups with different cultures and this brought mutual understanding towards nation-building.


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Freedom in Ethical Discourse

Freedom in Ethical Discourse

Introduction

Freedom is as old as the existence of man. It is a general term used in everyday activity mostly to express how free one is in his or her actions. But, freedom in ethical discourse cuts across critical and rational discussions alongside many disciplines. This is because, no matter how free man is, everywhere seems to be in chains – Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Freedom comes with personal consciousness to choose to act freely in a certain way rather than the other. Thus, freedom in ethical discourse comes with choice and freewill. Hence, one is free to choose or not to choose. But, do you know that “even when one chooses not to choose, he/she ends up making a choice (choosing)”?

However, if there is no policy, there is no freedom, and if there is no freedom, there is no action. To deprive a man of his action is to reduce him to the level of animals. This above statement by Hannals Arendt goes far to emphasis the essentials of man’s freedom as that which authenticate him as a dynamic creature different from brutes and animals.

The Concept of Freedom in Philosophy

Freedom is referred as “self-evident truth” and it is upon this axiomatic assumption that laws are laid down in human Communities, decisions taken and judgment are passed.

In the history of philosophy and social thought, freedom has a specific use as a moral and a social concept. Generally, it refers either to circumstances which arises in the relations of the world today.

Freedom is likened to be in relation with Right; when one says ‘it is my right to make speeches that please me’, and when one positions that ‘I have Freedom of Speech’. In the course of this discourse, the concept freedom will be clarified and its (freedom) essences make known as coherent as possible. Let’s discuss the different definitions of Freedom.

Definition of Freedom:

The various meaning of the term “freedom” centers around three major themes.

  1. The first is the possibility of the subject to act as man wills to satisfy his tendencies, aspiration etc (freedom of actions as opposed to constraint, servitude etc. civil and political liberties, etc.)
  2. The second is the power of self-determination without any necessitation in willing. If only from the pressure of the nature slightly distinct form the ego (freedom of willing, freewill as opposed to Necessity).
  3. The third is the fulfillment of reasoning subject by the internal domination of reason, of superior motivations over feeling and over inferior motivations (rational freedom).

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Freedom is the faculty which man enjoys in determining himself to an action and to bring its cause, after haven taken consciousness of the considerations that such an action carries for life. Man is a free being within and without, beneath and above.

Freedom is man’s true self without which he ceases to be what he is, a being unto God, the image of the creator, the matter of the universe of creations, the dynamic being. For man to achieve greatness as desired by God, the creator, man has to be free.

Freedom according to Baptista Mundin, is “another great window for looking into the mystery of man.” With freedom, man is not only simply the master of his own acts, but also of himself. He is the master of his own becoming, more precisely, of that which he will become, an honest citizen a laborious worker, a generous woman, an ernest mother.

Freedom implies the dignity, the excellence and nobility of the human person, without which life for the individual is altered and for the society, a total chaos and the general state of anarchy. Man’s freedom is not only a quality describing an aspect of his life, but the dynamics of his being, a power giving direction and meaning to the very value that man holds most desirable life.

Types of Freedom

There are two types of freedom. They are as follows;

  1. Exercise Freedom
  2. Specification Freedom

N:B There are many other types of freedom according to different categories. But, we shall be discussing the two mentioned above.

Exercise Freedom

Freedom of exercise is that between contradictory alternatives; it is the freedom of an agent to act or not to act in an absolute sense. In any given situation, a man who is rational can will to act or will not to act. Man has this sort of freedom as a voluntary agent always, and here, freedom relates to the interior act of willing or not willing by the moral agent. The voluntary act and the free act, for all practical purposes are identical.

Specification Freedom

On the other hand, freedom of specification presupposes freedom of exercise and looks further to some objects specifying the act to be done by the agent. It is the choice of this alternative rather than that or, more precisely, the choice of this means in relation to a desired end.

The free act as choice, therefore, is concerned with means properly, not with ends as ends. To will an end as an end is not a matter of choice but a matter of simple willing; an act of the will which centers precisely on the means is the act of choice. When reference is made to human freedom in moral context, it is usually this freedom of specification that is meant.

Many philosophers have contributed in the definition of the term “freedom” from the ancient era of philosophy.

Kinds or Forms of Freedom

  1. Physical Freedom

This is a man’s freedom from external constraint; that is freedom from all kinds and forms of oppressive force against man’s choice and voluntariness. This physical freedom is the immunity from physical constriction.

2. Moral Freedom

This is the absence of constriction through oppressive force of moral order such as reward, punishments, laws, and threats; it is the power to choose and to determine oneself. However, man’s freedom is the freedom of choice of moral goodness, to choose the good and to avoid the evil. Meanwhile, the fear of the aftermaths of man’s action makes him act in an opposite direction, he acts for good to receive reward and praise, but if he acts contrary to the good, he receives punishments.

3. Psychological Freedom

Psychological freedom is man’s capacity to choose to do anything when all necessary conditions for acting are present. It is the sovereign control over the situation by which the will holds in its hands the power to make the choice fall in favour of one of various alternative possibilities.

Psychological freedom therefore, is the absence of pressure on the part of other human activities on our will, intellect or passion to perform acts in a determined way “man is a social being, open to values and communication with others and as such to be free from social influence and is therefore to be psychologically free.

4. Political Freedom

Political freedom is the absence of any form of political pressure of man. It is the freedom of the citizens of the state to exercise their political rights uninhabited. These includes the basics of political rights, the right to vote, the right to hold office, the right to participate in making political decisions, the right to associate with others of like views and to criticize the government.

5. Social Freedom

This is the freedom from social determinism; it is the freedom of socialization and the absorption of the growth of the functions of groups, associations, and institutions having religious, social, economic, cultural, professional and political ends which operates for the good of the states.

The examination of the various kinds of freedom, clarifies to some extent what we mean by the term freedom, as that faculty which man enjoys determining himself to an action and to being its cause and author. Form the ongoing; we can see that freedom touches every aspect of man’s life. In this vein, Mundin says that freedom is “an unequivocal sign of man’s physical and spiritual dimension.”

The Essence of Freedom

The proof of the existence of freedom is necessary, in the sense of its validity beyond experience or any philosophical and scientific claims against its existence. The essence of freedom elucidates the need of man having or obtaining freedom. It explains the importance of freedom to man.

Firstly, freedom enables man to choose on which actions or activities to follow. This act of choice is one of the attributes of a human being. This is because one of the reasons of man’s rationality is to be able to dictate the good and the bad and having the right or freedom to make a choice. This therefore, explains man as not being a total determined being.

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Secondly, freedom allows the human conformability. This is because in freedom one becomes comfortable and should be hold responsible for his actions, hence the advent of the moral agent.

The comfortability here is that the moral agent is no more on determinism of something or mandatory doing something. Here, the human person exercises an act of choosing to do or not to do and at his or her own convenient time.

Thirdly, freedom enables us to participate in the human activities and on this, we exercises over fundamental human right especially in political aspect of freedom. It also enables us to associate, socialize and interacts with other creatures in the human environment. It also puts into our consciousness, the right to choose the religion of our choice and participate in its activities.

Fourthly, freedom widens our knowledge in knowing some of our right and what is not our right in the society at large. Through this means, freedom can be said to be a form of education to human being. It is through it that we gained the opportunity of searching and researching for what will help in the skyrocketing of human being beings and its environment.

Conclusion

Freedom plays a significant role in the relationship between one and another. In other words, freedom is an important concept which works with consciousness and choice.

Drawing from the above explanations, one could attest that Freedom is though guided, moderated and regulated by the laws and rules set up in the society, but its essences are moreover unlimited both in ethics and other disciplines.


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Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

The Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

Discourse on human condition is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives.  About the human conditions, one talks about the characteristics , key events and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict and mortality. When we do not take human condition to be non-philosophical, this term is typically used to show meaning of life and moral concerns.

The palingenesis of this contemporary discourse is not only a contemporary challenge but a perennial issue. How do these conditions imply moral judgments and have its roots in the existence of man? These are pertinent questions which need to be answered.

As we see. This study again introduces the notion of moral responsibility and we cannot unite the notion of the philosophical discourse on human conditions with the issue of moral responsibility. What we should do then would be to take the term, human conditions, in its non-philosophical extension which covers the issue of moral concerns.

We cannot discuss moral responsibility without bringing in the notion of freedom and responsibility. Thus, we are forced to bring in the concept freedom and responsibility into the notion of human condition. This makes us add freedom and rationality as part of the human condition which implies moral responsibility.

The problem identified here is how man acts without concern and check about his morality when his actions are critically evaluated. If man possesses freedom and rationality, why do not these work in synergy? Why does not rationality keep a check on freewill to remind it that it is about to perform actions that are going to be evaluated?

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The universality of rationality and freewill is put into question where if these are universal, why do some people act irrationally and others do the opposite? The actions which result from the laissez-a-faire attitude of man has contributed lots of problems which are experienced in the society and to which the solution appears to not be near.

The purpose of this study, therefore, is to cause an introspection and re-introspection on the actions we carry out and make a conscious effort to remind ourselves that our end is still revolving around our human condition, which is death. Thus, we need to make a mark and make an impact before we faze out of existence.

On the significance of this study, one can identify that man will begin to tend towards producing positive results and recreating himself. Call to mind that this is an anthropological study which starts from man and ends in man and so the effect will only be seen in the attitude of man.

The Human Condition

Man has been conceived over the ages to be many things and has got many attributes to himself. He has been seen as homo erectus, homo faber, homo religious, homo loquens etc and these constitute man and show the conditions which make him act the way he does.

Because man is religious, we can say and understand when he performs religious activities and so, likewise other actions. On being responsible for the actions he take, we allude blames and praises to man for the actions done because he possesses freedom and rationality (voluntas et ratio).

These are attributes that are so concomitant with man that any attempt to reduce any in whatever form would be dangerous and would arise to a new class of man. And that is why we have amoral beings, who cannot be blamed for actions they take.

Although these may lay claims to being humans, we now count them off from the scope of morality because they possess neither freedom to act nor rationality.

Implication for Moral Responsibility

However, Fisher and Ravizza give requirements for the responsibility of an action and according to them what epistemic requirements for being morally responsible for performing an action are not also requirements for performing another action.

We must note that there are philosophers who believe that there are epistemic requirements for being morally responsible for acting that are not requirements for freely acting because they assume that Fisher has shown this is so.

Our responsibility is much greater than we might have supposed because it involves all mankind and by the very nature of our being man and by the possession of attributes which establish him to be able to receive blame and praise for whatever action he may take.

On morality, Zimmeran proposes that the consequences of one’s actions- even those that are actually foreseen do not add anything to the degree of worthiness of blame, over and above that accrues to her in virtue of deciding to perform a wrong action. And supporting Zimmeran’s view and defends the idea that occurrence and awareness of wrongdoing is necessary for blameworthiness.

One must then tend to say that (moral) responsibility is very closely linked with freedom and designates a person’s moral accountability for one’s actions. Liz can be responsible for an action only if it is really hers, only if its true cause is to be found in what makes of Liz a subject who is capable of self-determination. Before being responsible before others, Liz is responsible before herself.

The human conditions here focuses on the series of events that man has experienced and has formed him to be able to withstand the bad parts of life. Through the journey of man, he acquires attributes and tendencies that make him eligible to stand for moral judgment.

What is to be Done?

With the realization of man’s eligibility to stand for moral judgments because of his possession of freedom and rationality, there is a need to put every of our actions under thorough scrutiny before eventual execution so that we may not be found wanting in moral judgments. We must reflect on the consequences of our actions because there seems no escape route except answering for our actions once the deed has been done. 

Conclusion

The human conditions we have identified in the course of this study puts man on the moral judgment road and he must be wary of his actions these conditions and attributes have established him as a moral agents who stands trial for whatever at he does.


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