Judicial process & political significance in post-independence African states

Judicial process & political significance in post-independence African states

The Role of judiciary in African states

The judiciary is the system of law administration; it includes all those responsible for interpreting and executing the laws of a country. It is also known as the court system.

Functions of the Judiciary

  1. Interpretation and giving meaning to the law as enacted by the legislature.
  2. Adjudication of disputes between individuals and co.
  3. The judiciary also takes an active part in the maintenance of law and order in society.
  4. Administration of oath of office.
  5. The judiciary also checks arbitrary use of government powers either by the legislature or the executive.

Types and hierarchy of courts in Nigeria

  1. The supreme court- the highest court.
  2. The appeal court (federal appeal court in Nigeria).
  3. The high court judge
  4. The magistrate court
  5. The customary court
  6. The sharia court for  (Muslims)

Independence of The Judiciary

Independence of the judiciary in most African countries is more theoretical exercise than practical. There is no gainsaying that independence of the judiciary in Nigeria and other praetorian and neo-colonial states is a farce. In Nigeria today, the President (from the Executive arm of government) gives order and even appoints any Judge of his choice, and use him thereafter to silent every of his court cases.

In order to ensure the independence of the judiciary, certain conditions must be strictly adhered to and they are selection and appointment of judges, the security of tenure of judges, and political neutrality of judges.

Selection and Appointment

Judges should be essentially be selected or appointed based on political considerations. They should be selected on neutral ground and based on merit.

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy Introduction Justice in philosophy is the concept of the proper proportion between a person s deserts what is merited and the good and bad

How To Start-up Your Own Business - 7 Effective Steps

Steps To Start Up Your Own Business nbsp Do you want to start-up your own business Do you want to become a boss of your own Then it's very simple

Security of Tenure

This means that judges hold their appointment as long as they maintain good behavior and not according to whims and caprices of the government in power. In U.S.A, judges of the supreme courts can be removed only by impeachment of congress in the case of serious offences.

Political Neutrality of Judges

Judges must be impartial once they are selected or elected. They should be immune from political pressure and interference and from the government that approve their appointment.

Types of law

  1. Administrative Law: There are the rules, regulations, orders, instructions, and guidelines of the executive to the administrative servant of the government.
  2. Statutes Law: these are the legal laws enacted by the legislature
  3. Constitutional Law: these are the legal rules defining and de-limiting the structures and powers of the institution of government.
  4. Common-Law: When these countries became independent, it continued to form the basis of their law.
  5. Civil law: It must be distinguished from the branch of law called criminal law because civil law refers to non-criminal matters in a state.

The Rule of Law

The term “rule of law ” is an ideology that the law of the state is supreme and above any other considerations within the state. Furthermore, the phrase “rule of law” means that the law is supreme, superior, and generally acceptable as the mode of determining and dispensing justice in the state.

Limitation of the Rule of Law

  1. Diplomatic Immunity: diplomats are above the law of the country in which they are serving
  2. The Existence Of Administrative Tribunal: judicial power is also a limitation to the rule of law.
  3. Trade Union And Parliamentary Immunity: There are also seen as limitations to the rule of law.
  4. Judicial Immunity: Judges are immuned against prosecution when they are in the dispensation of justice or while presiding over a case.
  5. Psychiatric Immunity: Mentally disabled patients are free from prosecution o any offense in any court of law.

Method Of Protecting Individual “Rights By Rule Of Law”.

  1. the rule of law gives all the citizens equal protection before the law.
  2. The rule of law ensures that no one is punished or made to suffer a breach of law unless established by a court of law.
  3. The rule of law ensures equality of every citizen before the law and that judges should dispense justice without fear or favor
  4. The rule of law ensures democratic principles, separation of powers, and checks and balances.

The Notion of Separation  of Powers

The notion of separation of powers was first put forward by an eighteenth-century French political thinkers known as Baron de Montesquieu in his famous book titled “Espirit des Lois” or “spirit of the laws” published in “1748”.

The phrase “separation of power” actually means that whatever or the amount of political power that may exist in any given state, should not be monopolized or concentrated in one person or group of persons. In the application of the principles of separation of powers in the parliamentary or cabinet system, there is little or no separation of power.

Virginity and Masturbation: Mistakes, Dangers Benefits and Effects

Virginity and Masturbation Do you think you know much hidden facts about virginity masturbation its mistakes dangers benefits and effects Well you would realize you knew about all of it

A Moment with A Love Doctor - Hooking-up with the right partner

Hooking-up with the Right Person In this lovely and relationship moment with a love doctor there will be a focus on how love partners meet and hook up with the

Human Rights in Africa

Human rights are called the inalienable rights of people. These are rights which the people must enjoy as human beings and citizens of any state. These rights are sometimes regarded as divine rights. The people are entitled to enjoy these rights once they born.

The covenant on civil and political rights recognized the right of every human person to life, liberty, and security of person, to freedom from cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatments and from torture, etc.

Two major Schools of Thoughts

  1. The liberal school of thought: Is predicted on the private accumulation of wealth at the detriment of the majority in a given society. The liberal capitalism as a stage of development that will not be phased out.
  2. The Marxist school of thought: It expresses the interest of the working class to be protected and the intensification of class struggle to dismantle the capitalist system is inevitable
  1. Benemy, F.W. (1968), Constitutional government of West Africa.
  2. Finger, S.M. (1980), your man at the U.N, New York.
  3. Briely, J.L. (1963), The law of nations (6th ed.)

Read Also:

Man Beats Pregnant Girlfriend to Death, Buries Her in His Bedroom in Rivers

Man Beats Pregnant Girlfriend Man Beats His Girlfriend and Buries Her in His Bedroom in Rumuepirikom Port-Harcourt River States About the Duo A man who is simply identified as Prince

Political Analysis - Department of Government

Political Analysis - Department of Government Introduction Political Analysis simply means any systematic attempt to understand examine evaluate as well as explain any form of political phenomena by first breaking

Meaning and Types of Euthanasia: Right to Die or denial of Right to Life

Meaning and Types of Euthanasia: Right to Die or denial of Right to Life

The Ethics of Euthanasia


We live in a society that is characterized by change and in order to survive in this change, the individuals have continued to adapt to this change. Making our mold to be a sophisticated one. This sophistication has to do with certain acts which mere before now considered wrong and evil are now seen as nothing and even part and parcel of life. This is consequent to the conscience diversity in our society. One of these acts confronting our generation is euthanasia, which simply put means, a good death.

The term euthanasia as a debatable issue was first debated, to be legalized in the united kingdom by a body known as, The voluntary Euthanasia Society, founded in 1935 which bill never held a once of water in the House of Lords in the UK. This debate cuts across complex and dynamic aspects, such as, philosophical, legal, ethical, religious, and political, aspects of the civilized society.

Discussions on this issue are complicated further by misunderstanding and confusion, of the terminology. Hence, I am propelled to consider the clarification of the meaning of euthanasia, types, religious and legal implications. It is therefore hoped that religious and legal implications. It is therefore hoped that this write-up will meet the approval of many people of goodwill, whose philosophical or ideological difference notwithstanding our changed generation, have nevertheless lively awareness of the rights of the human person.

Meaning of Euthanasia

Euthanasia is broadly defined as a deliberate action to ends someone’s life usually to relieve suffering. Medical practitioners sometimes carry out Euthanasia at the request by patients who are in critical pain due to terminal illness.

Shocking: Baby Born with a Long Tail of 13cm

New Born Baby with Tail A woman in her early 's has given birth to a baby with tail This baby has all the physical features of a normal human

The Importance & Role of Statistics in Business

Relevance of Statistics in Business Growing a business without the use of statistics is virtually impossible Many business enterprises are on the verge of collapse due to the absence of

However, due to the complexity in the process of performing Euthanasia, there are many factors to be considered. These factors range from the patient’s mental health, personal beliefs, related laws, and a lot more.

Types of Euthanasia

There are several types of Euthanasia namely:

  1. Assisted Suicide
  2. Active and Passive Euthanasia
  3. Voluntary and Non-voluntary Euthanasia

Assisted Suicide

Assisted Suicide is the deliberate act of assisting someone to commit suicide. It is otherwise called physician-assisted suicide (PAS). This entails that the doctor or physician is knowingly helping someone to end his/her life. Assisted suicide is usually performed when the patient suffers terribly from unending pains upon a terminally ill diagnosis. Their doctor will determine the most effective, painless approach.

In most cases, Assisted suicide is done by providing drugs to a patient to take and end his life. A good example of those drugs is a lethal dose of opioids.

But, Euthanasia gives the doctor the right to end the person’s life by painless means. For example, an injection of a lethal drug may be used.

Active vs. Passive Euthanasia

Active Euthanasia is the direct act of ending someone’s life by the doctor. Active Euthanasia could be performed by giving someone a lethal dose of sedative to take. The person takes the drugs and dies gradually in less pain.

Passive euthanasia is sometimes described as withholding or limiting life-sustaining treatments so that a person passes more quickly. A doctor may also prescribe increasingly high doses of pain-killing medication. Over time, the doses may become toxic.

However, passive Euthanasia is the indirect action of the doctor to help someone to end his life by not doing what he is supposed to do (such as not giving the person drugs as at when due) or by doing what he is supposed not to do (such as withholding or limiting life-sustaining treatments) with the intention of helping the person to end his/her life.

This makes the distinction between passive euthanasia and palliative care blurry. Palliative care focuses on keeping people as comfortable as possible at the end of their life.

10 Dangerous things you should stop doing to live healthy

Dangerous things you should stop doing For most people albeit all of us it is just about living life not taking into accounts little things which can kill us We

LETTER TO EL-RUFAI the observer that doesn't want to be observed

Letter to El - Rufai Amazing letter to El-Rufai Sir your February th statement have been the talk of many I for one believe that the statement was misunderstood by

For example, a palliative care doctor might allow someone approaching death to stop taking a medication that causes unpleasant side effects. In other cases, they might allow someone to take a much higher dose of pain medication to treat severe pain. This is often a standard part of good palliative care.

Voluntary vs. Non-voluntary

If someone makes a conscious decision to seek help with ending their life, it’s considered voluntary euthanasia. The person must give their full consent and demonstrate that they fully understand what will happen.

Nonvoluntary euthanasia involves someone else making the decision to end someone’s life. A close family member usually makes the decision. This is generally done when someone is completely unconscious or permanently incapacitated. It usually involves passive euthanasia, such as withdrawing life support from someone who’s showing no signs of brain activity.

The Value of Human Life

In the study of Philosophy, one of the courses to encounter is “Religion and Human Values“. In which every student is driven through the understanding of the meaning of values, the different things people value both the positive and negative ones, and also their hierarchy. Human life of all these values ranks first in that hierarchy because it is the basis of all goods, the necessary source, and condition precedence of every human, activity.

Most people regard life as something sacred and hold that no one may dispose of it at will. Some, like believes even see in life something greater, namely; a gift of God’s love which they are called upon to preserve and make fruitful. Hence, the injunction, increase, be fruitful, and fill the earth. And this consideration has given rise to the following consequences:

  1. No one can make an attempt on the life of an innocent person without opposing God’s love for that person, without violating a fundamental right, and therefore without committing, a crime of the utmost gravity.
  2. Intentionally causing one’s own death, or suicide is therefore, equally as wrong as murder; such an action on the part of a person is to be considered as a rejection of God’s sovereignty and loving plan. Which explains why

Under the typical African setting, one who kills another is either killed or banished forever. And those who commit suicide are equally punished through denial of profane burial rites or by disposing the corps into the evil forest. Because by committing suicide, the deceased is seen to have breached that duty saddled on him by the other of creation, i.e. the duty of justice and charity owed to a neighbor and the community at large.

However for proper clarification, one must distinguish suicide from that sacrifice of one’s life whereby for a higher course, such as God’s glory, the salvation, of soul’s or the service of one’s brethren, a person offers his or her own life or put it in danger. (Jm. 15:14).

The Ethics of Euthanasia

As a way of paraphrasing the theme of our discussion, one may ask “what is euthanasia all about?” Etymologically, euthanasia comes from the Greek words, ‘EU’ meaning ‘good’ and ‘Thanatos’ meaning death. Bringing both together, it succinctly means ‘the good death’. Before now, euthanasia was seen as an easy death without severe suffering.

Today, one no longer thinks of this original meaning of the word, but rather of some intervention of medicine whereby the suffering of sickness or of the final agony is reduced. Ultimately, the word euthanasia is used, in a more particular sense, to mean “mercy killing”, for the purpose, or putting an end to extreme suffering or saving abnormal babies, the mentally ill or the incurable sick from the prolongation, perhaps for many years of a miserable life, which could impose too heavy a burden on their families.

METAPHYSICS: Meaning, Origin, Concepts and Relevance to the Society

Meaning and Relevance of Metaphysics in the Contemporary Era This philosophical article extensively discusses the meaning of metaphysics examines its philosophical foundation and most importantly indicates its relevance and importance

A Moment with A Love Doctor - Hooking-up with the right partner

Hooking-up with the Right Person In this lovely and relationship moment with a love doctor there will be a focus on how love partners meet and hook up with the

Legal Implication

As a result of the sacrosanct nature of life and how important it is, there has been over the time avalanche of pronouncements, both international and local which are geared towards safeguarding and preservation of life. Such pronouncements include the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. African Character on Human and People’s Rights Universal Declaration on Human Rights 1948 etc.

The constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, in section 33(1) provides, that every person has a right to life, and no one shall be deprived intentionally of his life, save in execution of the sentence, of a count in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been found guilty in Nigeria.

However, there are exceptions allowed by the same law on which that life can be derogated. For example, in self-defense, the police in giving effect to a lawful arrest, suppressing or quelling a riot, insurrection or mutiny or giving effect to a death sentence. See. 3. 33(2) (a-c) of the 1999 constitution (supra).

Euthanasia at machinep.com

It is still germane to note that, an exception has been developed, in some jurisdictions which makes the termination of the life of an incurable ill patient crime-free, provided:

  1. It was done by a guardian or immediate family member
  2. After due consultation with an ethics committee of a hospital

There are several important cases and court decisions, together with several important acts or bills legalized in the countries mentioned which became the cornerstones in the development of euthanasia in the world. The Netherlands is the only country where euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are practiced openly.

The Royal Dutch Medical Association in 1934, stated that “Euthanasia should remain a crime”, but that physicians performing euthanasia and assisted suicide, would not be prosecuted if they met the following requirements; (1) The request by the patient must be voluntary, durable and persistent. (2) The patient was fully informed about the medical condition and the prognosis, and there was no other alternative treatment avoidable. (3) the patient had unbearable suffering, and (4) The physician had Consulted with another physician.

One challenge to the guideline for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands was the apparent ‘slippery slope’ phenomenon. This could be illustrated by the following cases.Dr. Chabot, a psychiatrist, who helped a physically fit patient with a history of depression for 20 years to commit suicide by prescribing a lethal drug in 1991. The Dutch supreme court found him guilty as changed only because he had never allowed another doctor to examine the patient.

In 1995, the District Court in Alkmaar discharged and acquitted Dr. Prins who gave a lethal injection to a baby girl born with a partly formed brain and spina bifida. Because he consulted her parents and other physicians. The right of the terminally ill act was passed by the Northern Territory parliament on 25 May 1995, which became law on 1st July 1996. Thus, making Australia the first country to pass laws allowing a physician to end the life of the terminally ill patient.

Hence, Mr. Bob Dent, a 66-year-old Darwin resident suffering from Carcinoma of the prostate, became the first person in the world to die under euthanasia legislation through the help of Dr. Philip Nietschker in 22nd September 1996. Followed by Mrs. Jenet Mills, a 52-year-old lady who suffered mycosis fungoides. But after 6 months of the first death under the act, that right was overturned by the Australian Federal Senate.

Pastor Impregnates more than 20 Church Members, Gives Reasons..

Pastor Impregnates more than Church Members Secretly A Nigerian Pastor has been arrested and detained for impregnating more than women and young girls who are among the congregations of the

How To Start-up Your Own Business - 7 Effective Steps

Steps To Start Up Your Own Business nbsp Do you want to start-up your own business Do you want to become a boss of your own Then it's very simple

Death with Dignity

Advocates of Euthanasia often begin by talking about ta right to die, that euthanasia should be a matter of voluntary choice, the right to choose a dignified death instead of a degrading and disgusting twilight life. This is evidenced by the creation of several organizations in many parts of the world which espouse euthanasia as fundamental rights.

But dignity in old age and in pain is a matter of the spirit even more than of the body. As dying can be an opportunity – a man’s last opportunity –for showing courage, nobility, and serenity. A priest once wrote a book about dying: he called it “The Last Achievement”. One has a right to die one’s own death; but, for a Christian, his own death is that willed by God at the time and in the manner He wills. He went further to say that life itself is grace. The time of one’s life is a time of God’s love and grace. It is not for us to put limits on his grace or love.

Again, dignity in old age and pain helps to determine whether one is loved or not. No one who knows he is loved ever loses dignity. It is true that long illness and helplessness impose a great strain on the love of relatives. But euthanasia existed as a possibility, the strain on the love would become unbearable, both for the relatives and for the patients. The patient, relatives, and the doctor could never have complete trust in one another.

The patient might feel he was being selfish if he did not seek death in order to relieve relatives of the hopeless burden. He might feel unwanted and suspect that relatives were silently hoping he would ask for death. Both relatives and patients would be unsure of their doctor’s attitude or the purpose of his prescriptions. Those with experience of nursing the terminally ill and old know what the fear is not with so much as being abandoned and left alone.

The fear being unloved and unwanted even more than they fear pain. Everything is bearable, even death loses terror, in the presence of those who love us. Those with experience agree that a substantial component of all pain is psychological.

A Happy Death

Extract from moral questions of the statement of Bishop’s Conference of England and Wales, Dec 31, 1970. “it is trite that, the crown of a Christian life is a Christian, death. We have a traditional spirituality that looks forward to a “happy death”, by which we mean that we die at peace with God, fortified by the sacraments of the church. It is the part of a Christian to help others in their last hours and surround them with care. It is not the part of a Christian to terminate the life of another.

Introduction to Guitar For Beginners

Introduction to GUITAR for Beginners Do you want to be a Guitar Player Of course everybody does This is because Guitar is one of the sweetest musical instruments to play

My Story on the Recent Suicide Cases in Nigeria

Aside the current Bad Leadership and Frustration in the Country Our Uncles and Immediate Relations are Constituents of this Suicidal Abhor By Agbajeogu Chibueze E Why Students Why the Youths

”The real answer to the euthanasian mentality is for Christians, to witness, both in personal conviction and in words, but above all by example, to the faith which gives us the joyful hope that “death is swallowed up in victory (1 Cor. 15:55).  When Christians speak of a happy death, he is speaking of something much more than a death without pain. For him, death has a positive meaning as the door opening on a new life.

For Catholics, a might is a moral claim and we do not have a claim on death rather death has a claim on us. God is the only supreme who appoints the time of our birth and that of our death.


Having x-rayed the poignant challenges posed on our society by this quest for euthanasia, the paramount question remains whether it constitutes an infringement of the right of life when done with or without the consent of the subject. Having considered the constitutional guarantee of the right to life and the circumstances on which it could be restricted. It appears that euthanasia carried out with or without the consent of the subject is not within the permissible circumstances.

The answer to the problems currently facing us lies first and foremost in changing the attitude of the society and not in changing our laws. Euthanasia is society’s lazy way and unloming way of getting rid of the problem of pain and old age. I firmly believe that a positive approach to death by society in general, together with compassionate, competent medical care and considerate, patient-oriented nursing holds the answer to our present problem.

Finally, considering the unique position of relevance that the church occupies in the affairs of the society, it is not difficult, for the church to become the nucleus for coalescing the principle that would spearhead the realization of the true meaning of life and so come to preserve it at all cost.

Read Also:

Pastor Impregnates more than 20 Church Members, Gives Reasons..

Pastor Impregnates more than Church Members Secretly A Nigerian Pastor has been arrested and detained for impregnating more than women and young girls who are among the congregations of the

Virginity and Masturbation: Mistakes, Dangers Benefits and Effects

Virginity and Masturbation Do you think you know much hidden facts about virginity masturbation its mistakes dangers benefits and effects Well you would realize you knew about all of it

Definition, Purpose, and the Study of Religion

Definition, Purpose, and the Study of Religion

The Study of Religion

Religious studies, also known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives.

While theology attempts to understand the nature of transcendent or supernatural forces (such as deities), religious studies try to study religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draw upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and history of religion.

Religious studies originated in the 19th century. At that time, the scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, and Hindu and Buddhist texts were first being translated into European languages. Early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller in England and Cornelius P. Tiele in the Netherlands. Today religious studies are practiced by scholars worldwide. In its early years, it was known as “comparative religion” or the science of religion and, in the USA, there are those who today also know the field as the History of religion (associated with methodological traditions traced to the University of Chicago in general and in particular Mircea Eliade, from the late 1950s through to the late 1980s).

The religious studies scholar Walter Capps described the purpose of the discipline as to provide “training and practice… in directing and conducting inquiry regarding the subject of religion”. At the same time, Capps stated that its other purpose was to use “prescribed modes and techniques of inquiry to make the subject of religion intelligible.” Religious studies scholar Robert A. Segal characterized the discipline as “a subject matter” that is “open to many approaches”, and thus it “does not require either a distinctive method or a distinctive explanation to be worthy of disciplinary status.”

Different scholars operating in the field have different interests and intentions; some for instance seek to defend religion, while others seek to explain it away, and others wish to use religion as an example with which to prove a theory of their own. Some scholars of religious studies are interested in primarily studying the religion to which they belong.

In the study of religion, scholars of religion have argued that a study of the subject is useful for individuals. This is because it will provide them with the knowledge that is pertinent in inter-personal and professional contexts within an increasingly globalized world. It has also been argued that studying religion is useful in appreciating and understanding sectarian tensions and religious violence.

Definition of religion

Throughout the history of religious studies, there have been many attempts to define the term “religion” just like philosophy. Many of these have been monothetic, seeking to determine a key, essential element which all religions share, which can be used to define “religion” as a category, and which must be necessary in order for something to be classified as a “religion”.

Etymologically, The term “religion” could be traced to three ancient Greek words: Religare, Ligare, and Religere which means, to bind, to unite, and relationship. Religion is seen and understood in many ways by many different religious secs.

Introduction to Guitar For Beginners

Introduction to GUITAR for Beginners Do you want to be a Guitar Player Of course everybody does This is because Guitar is one of the sweetest musical instruments to play

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy

The Notion of Justice in Philosophy Introduction Justice in philosophy is the concept of the proper proportion between a person s deserts what is merited and the good and bad

There are two forms of monothetic definition; the first is substantive, seeking to identify a specific core as being at the heart of religion, such as a belief in a God or gods, or an emphasis on power. The second is functional, seeking to define “religion” in terms of what it does for humans, for instance defining it by the argument that it exists to assuage the fear of death, unite a community, or reinforce the control of one group over another. Other forms of definition are polythetic, producing a list of characteristics that are common to religion. In this definition there is no one characteristic that needs to be common in every form of religion.

Causing further complications is the fact that there are various secular world views, such as nationalism and Marxism, which bear many of the same characteristics that are commonly associated with religion, but which rarely consider themselves to be religious.

Conversely, other scholars of religious studies have argued that the discipline should reject the term “religion” altogether and cease trying to define it. In this perspective, “religion” is argued to be a Western concept that has been forced upon other cultures in an act of intellectual imperialism. According to scholar of religion Russell T. McCutcheon, “many of the peoples that we study by means of this category have no equivalent term or concept at all”. There is, for instance, no word for “religion” in languages like Sanskrit.

Purposes of Religious Education

The study of Religious Education makes a distinctive contribution to the school curriculum by developing pupils’ knowledge and understanding of religion, religious beliefs, practices, language and traditions, and their influence on individuals, communities, societies, and cultures. It enables pupils to consider and respond to a range of important questions related to their own spiritual development, the development of values and attitudes, and fundamental questions concerning the meaning and purpose of life.

Religious Education is an essential component of a broad and balanced education.

Religious Education is concerned with the deep meaning that individuals and groups make of their experiences and how this helps them give purpose to their lives. It provides opportunities to explore, make, and respond to the meanings of those experiences in relation to the beliefs and experiences of others as well as to one’s own experiences.

Along with the other subjects, Religious Education aims:
  • To provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve.
  • To promote pupils’ spiritual, moral, social, and cultural development and to prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities, and experiences of the present and the future. The Sandwell Agreed Syllabus for Religious Education has four purposes, which are parallel to the four main purposes of the National Curriculum.
  • To establish an entitlement. The Agreed Syllabus secures for all pupils, irrespective of social background, culture, race, religion, gender, differences in ability and disabilities, and entitlement to learning in Religious Education. This contributes to their developing knowledge, understanding, skills, and attitudes, which are necessary for their personal fulfillment and development as active and responsible citizens.
  • To establish standards. The Agreed Syllabus makes expectations for learning and attainment explicit to pupils, parents, teachers, governors, employers, and the public, and establishes standards for the performance of all pupils in Religious Education. These standards may be used to set targets for improvement and measure progress towards those targets.
  • To promote continuity and coherence. The Agreed Syllabus for Religious Education contributes to a coherent curriculum that promotes continuity. It facilitates the transition of pupils between schools and phases of education. And, it can provide foundations for further study and lifelong learning.
  • To promote public understanding. The Agreed Syllabus for Religious Education will increase public understanding of, and confidence in, the work of schools in RE. Through the SACRE, the religious communities of Sandwell have been involved in its development. This is part of the mission of Sandwell SACRE.

Read Also:

Political Thought - A Complete Guide

Political Thought - Nature History and Characteristics Political thought can simply be defined as thinking Many people define political thought as a disciplined investigation of political problems while some others

The True Origin of Easter Celebration

The True Origin of Easter by David Pack Edited by Ga tan Dolor s Most people follow along as they have been taught assuming that what they believe and do

Irreversible Effects of Postinor 2 Contraceptives Exposed 

Effects of Postinor Contraceptives Exposed Many city ladies would prefer using Postinor to prevent unwanted pregnancies but what they don t now is that constant and abusive use of the

It Wasn't Suicide; they Killed Him

Suicide amp its Rampant Practice Suicide amongst youths and young adults has been on the increase In Nigeria where taking one s life is seen as a taboo and curse

Third World and Dependency

Third World and Dependency

Third World and Dependency refers to the less developed countries and their dependency on the developed (First World) for advanced living. In order to broadly categorize the nations of the Earth based on political and economic divisions, there is a hierarchical categorization of the nations into three; the First World, Second World, and the Third World. The term “Third World” is used less and less in the contemporary time. Thus, the term has been replaced with terms such as ‘least developed countries, developing countries, less civilized countries, or the Global South. However, it will not be mistaken to say the term has been outdated most recently.

Because many Third World countries were economically poor and non-industrialized, it became a stereotype to refer to poor countries as “third world countries”, especially African countries. Nigeria, as one of the Third World Countries, is the center of this discourse. However, this article focuses on the following issues:


  1. Introduction to Third World Countries.
  2. Globalization and Free Trade.
  3. Reasons why Globalization and Free Trade have not been favorable to Third World countries especially Nigeria’s political and economic development.
  4. Reasons why Modernization, Westernization, including the adoption of a free-market economy have not developed Nigeria to the level of America or any of the Asian tiger countries.
  5. Effective suggestions of the economic system that would be suitable for a Third World country as Nigeria.

Meaning of Globalization and Free Trade

Globalization is a historical process involving a fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expanded the reach of power relations across regions and continents. The keyword of note is that globalization is linked to liberalization, modernization, and universalization.

  1. Globalization is a transformational process.
  2. Globalization creates an awareness of cultural similarities and differences.
  3. Globalization leads to greater efficiency in the use of capital and other factors of production etc.

Free trade, on the other hand, is a theoretical policy under which governments impose absolutely no tariffs, taxes, or duties on Imports, or quotas on Exports. In this sense, free trade is the opposite of protectionism, a defensive trade policy intended to eliminate the possibility of foreign competition.

Reasons Why Globalization and Free Trade have not been Favorable to the Third World Countries, especially Nigeria.

The third world dependence on foreign trade links and on the monopoly of capital of the industrialized world has produced, among other things endemic economic consequences.

Firstly, the international economic system, free and unfair trade, has rendered third world economies as chronic victims of adverse balance of trade and payments. For example, the price of primary products such as cocoa, palm produce, peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, etc. from Africa, have been subjected to evident price falls while the prices of goods manufactured in the advanced industrialized countries of western Nations appreciate from year to year in the prices they sale finished products emanation from their industries.

Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

The Human Condition Implication for Moral Responsibility Discourse on human condition is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives About

Having A High Sex Drive? Fix it with these Effective Remedies

Fixing a High Sex Drive - Suggestive Remedies It is very normal to have a sex drive but when it is very high there seems to be a problem Have

Capitalism as a western economy force with its agents; the multinational corporations, international monetary fund (IMF), and the world bank have blurred the lines of economic vision of African Nations, particularly, the newly independent sovereign states. They have been forced directly or indirectly into the dependency syndrome mentality.

As a consequence of the capitalist mode of production, which third world Nations have been lured to embrace as a colonial legacy, concentrate the means of production, distribution and exchange in the hands of a privileged few. Western Nations and their agents; multinational corporations making it difficult if not impossible for third World Nations to compete with western capitalist Nations in the highly competitive global market.

Nigeria and other third world economies are rich in agricultural land and in mineral deposits such as oil and gas but developed nations of the west through their multinational corporation extract and refines most of these mineral resources with their own advanced technology.

Furthermore, the third world Nation’s problem has, thus, become how to generate capital for their individual national development and to use such to develop their own nature-endowed resources.

Third world nations, therefore, produce what they do not consume, and consume what they do not produce. This situation destroys the local growth of industries and denies the people of the opportunity to develop their own indigenous processing techniques.

In summary, increasing dependence on foreign investment and capital especially at the level of unprecedented proportion can only delay Third World Nation’s chance of political and economic development.

Explanation to why modernization, westernization, including the adoption of free market economy have not developed Nigeria to the level of America or any of the Asian tiger countries.

The term modernization refers to the process whereby societies or social institutions change or move from traditional or less developed ones into the types of technologies and associated social organizations that characterize the advanced, economically prosperous, and politically stable Nations of the western world.

Reasons, why modernization, westernization and free-market economy have not developed Nigeria to the level of America or any other Asian countries, are as follows:

The task of developing a society lies in the hand of individuals whether leaders or followers

In his strong position, Hag(1973:110) states that: “ citizens of developing Nations should be blamed for much of the present mess of underdevelopment. Myles(2000) believes that the position of one’s underdevelopment is a result of the darkness of vision, ignorance, and blind to God’s principle.

In Nigeria, for instance, the proceeds from the oil boom of the 1970s have made our leaders not see other material resources to exploit like gold, tin, zinc, lead, salt, coal, etc. These, if properly explored and harnessed, would have stabilized Nigeria’s economy rather than crude oil.

Eight Lovely Ways to Move on after a Breakup - Advanced

Lovely Ways to Move on after a Breakup Have you experienced a heartbreak that led to breakup lately Has your boyfriend girlfriend cheated on you and you break up with

Ninth Assembly Leadership Tussle & The Death Of Sections 50,92,4,5,6 Of Our Constitution

Ninth Assembly Leadership Tussle As the drama for who leads the th Assembly in Nigeria continues to unfold many have continued to questioned the place of Section a and section

The second factor is ethnicity problem

Ethnicity is an enemy of growth, progress, and development. “The major single obstacle to development in Africa is tribalism.”

The colonial authorities did not consider the ethnic boundaries when they shared Africa to themselves. This ignorance is wholly responsible for ethnic, tribal, and international wars in Africa and the third world countries today.

In Nigeria, a bloody civil war was fought for three good years (Nigeria and Biafran Civil War) between Joly 1967 and 15th January 1970. It is not different in other African nations. Countries like Congo, Liberia, Angola, etc.  It has rendered many people homeless and has made many refugees even in their countries of abundance.

Leadership Succession

Nigeria and other third world nations are blessed with abundant human and material resources. It may be useful to argue that the inability of the leaders of these countries to make proper use of these resources has been responsible for her unstable socio-economic, educational, and political systems.

Most of the leaders of the third world Nations are power-drunk and never believe that the grace of God in others can enable them to lead even better than them. The power of incumbency is a political disease.

Unstable Political System

This is mostly an endemic feature that characterizes most of the Nations that are classified as third world. The military in African countries and other third world Nations have abandoned their traditional function of defending the territorial integrity of their countries and picked up administrative functions. They fear not the civilians who own in totality the administration.

Effective Suggestion of an Economic System Suitable for a Third World Country like Nigeria

An economic system that will be suitable for a third world country like Nigeria is a mixed economy. A mixed economy where both the government and private individuals can engage in the production of goods and services. The type of economic system gives room for individuals to exhibit their talents and skills thereby earning income for themselves and also contributing to the growth of the Nation’s economy.

Just as America, the major source of their economic growth and employment is a private business. If Nigeria adopts this mixed economy, there will be employment opportunities as these private industries will employ people who will help in the production of goods and services. This system allows both the government and the private individuals access to ownership of properties and industries.

Read Also:

How to Discover Your Talents - Advanced Methods

Discover your Hidden Talents With these Advanced Methods How to Discover your Talents Ever wondered if you have talents at all Ever wondered if you are good at anything aside

I Was Asked To Sit by the Corner But I Never Gave Up

YOU HAVE NO REASON TO GIVE UP In this photo was George Mclaurin the first black man admitted to the University of Oklahoma in was forced to sit in the

Best Way To Grow Your Hair Quickly

BEST WAY TO GROW YOUR HAIR QUICKLY Do you desire to have your hair grown quickly Or do you wish to grow hair on some bald parts of your head

The True Origin of Easter Celebration

The True Origin of Easter by David Pack Edited by Ga tan Dolor s Most people follow along as they have been taught assuming that what they believe and do

Human Histology of the Bone

Human Histology of the Bone


Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that exhibits four types of cells: osteoclasts, bone lining cells, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Bone exerts important functions in the body, such as locomotion, support, and protection of soft tissues, calcium and phosphate storage, and harboring of bone marrow. Despite its inert appearance, bone is a highly dynamic organ that is continuously reabsorbed by osteoclasts and reformed by osteoblasts. There is evidence that osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of this bone remodeling process. This is introduction to the histology of the bone.

The function of bone lining cells is not well clear, but these cells seem to play an important role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation. Bone remodeling is a highly complex process by which old bone is replaced by new bone, in a cycle comprised of three phases:

  1. Initiation of bone resorption by osteoclasts,
  2. The transition (or reversal period) from resorption to new bone formation, and
  3. The bone formation by osteoblasts.

This process occurs due to coordinated actions of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells which together, form the temporary anatomical structure called basic multicellular unit (BMU). Normal bone remodeling is necessary for fracture healing and skeleton adaptation to mechanical use, as well as for calcium homeostasis.

On the other hand, an imbalance of bone resorption and formation results in several bone diseases. For example, excessive resorption by osteoclasts without the corresponding amount of nerformed bone by osteoblasts contributes to bone loss and osteoporosis, whereas the contrary may result in osteopetrosis.

Recent studies have shown that bone influences the activity of other organs and the bone is also influenced by other organs and systems of the body, providing new insights and evidencing the complexity and dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review we will address the current data about bone cells biology, bone matrix, and the factors that influence the bone remodeling process. Moreover, we will briefly discuss the role of estrogen on bone tissue under physiological and pathological conditions.

HIstology of Human bone.. structure, shapes, forms , types, functions
Shapes of Bones

Bone Cells


Osteoblasts are cuboidal cells that are located along the bone surface comprising 4–6% of the total resident bone cells and are largely known for their bone-forming function. These cells show morphological characteristics of protein-synthesizing cells, including abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and prominent Golgi apparatus, as well as various secretory vesicles. As polarized cells, the osteoblasts secrete the osteoid toward the bone matrix. Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

The commitment of MSC towards the osteoprogenitor lineage requires the expression of specific genes, following timely programmed steps, including the synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and members of the Wingless (Wnt) pathways. The expressions of Runt related transcription factors 2, Distal-less home box 5 (Dlx5), and osterix (Osx) are crucial for osteoblast differentiation.

Additionally, Runx2 is a master gene of osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the fact that Runx2-null mice are devoid of osteoblasts. Runx2 has demonstrated to upregulate osteoblast-related genes such as ColIA1, ALP, BSP, BGLAP, and OCN. Once a pool of osteoblast progenitors expressing Runx2and ColIA1 has been established during osteoblast differentiation, there is a proliferation phase.

Man Beats Pregnant Girlfriend to Death, Buries Her in His Bedroom in Rivers

Man Beats Pregnant Girlfriend Man Beats His Girlfriend and Buries Her in His Bedroom in Rumuepirikom Port-Harcourt River States About the Duo A man who is simply identified as Prince

Educational Policy, History and Its Relevance to Educational Practices

Educational Policy and its Relevance Different meanings have been given to the concept of policy by different scholars Most often than not the concept of policy is either used interchangeably

In this phase, osteoblast progenitors show alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and are considered preosteoblasts. There is evidence that other factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), microRNAs, and connexin 43 play important roles in osteoblast differentiation. FGF-2knockoutmice showed a decreased bone mass coupled to an increase of adipocytes in the bone marrow, indicating the participation of FGFs in the osteoblast differentiation. It has also been demonstrated that FGF-18 upregulates osteoblast differentiation in an autocrine mechanism.

MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression in many cell types, including osteoblasts, in which some microRNAs stimulate and others inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Connexin 43 is known to be the main connexin in bone. The mutation in the gene encoding connexin 43 impairs osteoblast differentiation and causes skeletal malformation in mice. The synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts occurs in two main steps: deposition of organic matrix and its subsequent mineralization.

In the first step, the osteoblasts secrete collagen proteins, mainly type I collagen, noncollagenous proteins (OCN, osteonectin, BSP II, and osteopontin), and proteoglycan including decorin and biglycan, which form the organic matrix. Thereafter, mineralization of bone matrix takes place into two phases: the vesicular and the fibrillar phases. The vesicular phase occurs when portions with a variable diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm, called matrix vesicles, are released from the apical membrane domain of the osteoblasts into the newly formed bone matrix in which they bind to proteoglycans and other organic components.

Apology on Air - Interesting Love Story

Please Forgive me Benita By Izunwaonu I was the man who misunderstood her intentions She saw a Rose flower in my computer bag and she insisted in knowing who it

Meaning, Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages Hybridization in Biology

Meaning of Hybridization in Biology Hybridization in biology is simply defined as the interbreeding between two unrelated species to create a hybrid that may be created for a commercial use

Because of its negative charge, the sulfated proteoglycans immobilize calcium ions that are stored within the matrix vesicles. When osteoblasts secrete enzymes that degrade the proteoglycans, the calcium ions are released from the proteoglycans and cross the calcium channels presented in the matrix vesicle membrane. These channels are formed by proteins called annexins. On the other hand, phosphate-containing compounds are degraded by the ALP secreted by osteoblasts, releasing phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles. Then, the phosphate and calcium ions inside the vesicles nucleate, forming the hydroxyapatite crystals.

The fibrillar phase occurs when the supersaturation of calcium and phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles leads to the rupture of these structures and the hydroxyapatite crystals spread to the surrounding matrix. Mature osteoblasts appear as a single layer of cuboidal cells containing abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and large Golgi complex. Some of these osteoblasts show cytoplasmic processes towards the bone matrix and reach the osteocyte processes. At this stage, the mature osteoblasts can undergo apoptosis or become osteocytes or bone lining cells.

Interestingly, round/ovoid structures containing dense bodies and TUNEL-positive structures have been observed inside osteoblast vacuoles. These findings suggest that besides professional phagocytes, osteoblasts are also able to engulf and degrade apoptotic bodies during alveolar bone formation. Bone Lining Cells. Bone lining cells are quiescent flat-shaped osteoblasts that cover the bone surfaces, where neither bone resorption nor bone formation occurs.

Breast Cancer Preventive Measures for Ladies

Breast Cancer Preventive Measures Breast Cancer is any abnormal growth in the breast of a woman Every lady has the tendency of having this cancer if she is not educated

Human Condition: Implication for Moral Responsibility

The Human Condition Implication for Moral Responsibility Discourse on human condition is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives About

These cells exhibit a thin and flat nuclear profile; its cytoplasm extends along the bone surface and displays few cytoplasmic organelles such as profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Some of these cells show processes extending into canaliculi, and gap junctions are also observed between adjacent bone lining cells and between these cells and osteocytes.

The secretory activity of bone lining cells depends on the bone physiological status, whereby these cells can reacquire their secretory activity, enhancing their size, and adopting a cuboidal appearance. Bone lining cells functions are not completely understood, but it has been shown that these cells prevent the direct interaction between osteoclasts and bone matrix, when bone resorption should not occur, and also participate in osteoclast differentiation, producing osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).

Moreover, the bone lining cells, together with other bone cells, are an important component of the BMU, an anatomical structure that is present during the bone remodeling cycle.

Types of Cartilage

  1. Hyaline Cartilage:
  2. Elastic cartilage
  3. Fibrocartilage

Hyaline Cartilage

They have identical form, covered by Perichondrium. They are Matrix formed by the Chondrocyte, the matrix is subdivided into two types:- Territorial and Interterritorial.

This is similar to hyaline cartilage. The matrix contain more elastic fibers as well as elastic fibers as well as type II collagen fibers.


This is different from Hyaline or Elastic. The chondrocytes are differentiated from fibrocytes.

Cartilage Growth

Cartilage grows by two different processes: Interstitial growth and Appositional growth

a. Interstitial growth: This involves the division of existing chondrocytes. It is important in the formation of the fetal skeleton and continues in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages.

b. Appositional growth: This involves the differentiation of chondroblasts and stem cells on the inner surface of the perichondrium into chondrocytes. It is responsible for increasing the girth of the cartilage masses.

The Effect of Neocolonialism on Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

What better word portrays the act of the leaders of the country Nigeria Several studies on the theme of neocolonialism have been conducted and are still going on to examine

Pastor Impregnates more than 20 Church Members, Gives Reasons..

Pastor Impregnates more than Church Members Secretly A Nigerian Pastor has been arrested and detained for impregnating more than women and young girls who are among the congregations of the


The Bone tissue is rich in blood supply. It is a type of connective tissue with calcified matrix.


  1. It supports and protects
  2. Has Bone marrow.
  3. It is an important storage site for calcium and other essential minerals.


  1. The outer surfaces
  2. Sharpey’s fibers
  3. The internal surfaces of bones are covered by a thin, condensed reticular connective tissue (endosteum) that contain bone (endosteum) that contains bone and blood, cell precursors.
  4. The endosteum lines the marrow cavity and sends extensions into the haversian canals.

Components of Bone:

Osteogeneic cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts. Organic and non-organic collagen type I fibers.

Osteogenic (Osteoprogenitor) cells

  • Mesenchymal stem cells, Small spindle-shaped cells with pale cytoplasm and ovoid nuclei.
  • Osteoblast precursors have sparse RER and Golgi complexes.
  • Osteoclast precursors have abundant free ribosomes and mitochondria.


Found in the periosteum and endosteum. They have large rounded or cuboidal cells, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, well-developed RER and Golgi; and eccentric nucleus. They synthesize and secrete organic components. Osteoblasts mature and are called osteocytes.


Theirs Cells are branched, smaller than osteoblasts, and not divide. They found in cavities in the bone matrix called lacunae. Processes (branches) extend into canaliculi in the calcified matrix. The cells are isolated. They Contact one another through gap junctions. Located near bone surfaces. They maintain bone matrix. The death of osteocytes results in bone resorption.


They lie on bony surfaces in Hawship’s lacunae. Have Large multinucleated cells. Acidophilic, cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and Acidophilic cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and mitochondria and well developed Golgi complex; and brush border of plasma-membrane facing the bone marrow.  Cells release acid, collagenase, and in other lytic enzymes into the compartments; these break down bone matrix and release minerals, a process called bone resorption, Ossification (Bone formation). The bone is formed from mesenchymal embryonic tissue by two ways:

  1. Intra-membranous ossification
  2. Endochondral ossification

Intra-Membranous Ossification:

Ossification center in the form of increased vascularity, condensation of mesenchymal cells. The mesenchymal cells osteogenic cells. The osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts; which synthesize the organic component of bone matrix (collagen, glycoprotein). The osteoblasts secrete an enzyme which stimulates calcium salts to the calcified matrix. The bone matrix grows in the membrane, vascular tissues differentiate into hematopoietic tissue (bone marrow). A layer of vascular mesenchyme forming periosteum.  The osteogenic stem cells in the periosteum differentiate to osteoblasts, which start to lay down or arrange bone lamellae (compact bone).

Endochondral Ossification:

  • Cartilage model: The embryonic mesenchymal cells -condensed. It is differentiated from chondroblasts, chondrocytes, and cartilage matrix.
  • Primary centers of ossification: Some changes have been developed. The Chondrocytes in the middle of the cartilage model enlarged, and calcium salts become to deposit around the lacunae. Chondrocytes die due to the prevention of nutrient diffusion through the calcified matrix, leaving empty spaces.
  • The perichondrium becomes highly vascular and active and changed to the periosteum, where the inner vascular osteogenic cells differentiate to osteoblasts.
  • The osteoblasts start to lay down a collar of compact bone around the shaft called sub-periosteal collar of bone.
  • The periosteum forms a periosteal bud, which is consists of capillaries, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
  • The vascular bud invades the subperiosteal bone by osteoclasts.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down forming the primary bone marrow cavity.
  • As the periosteal bud invades bone and cartilage, the osteoblasts arrange themselves along the marrow spaces and start to lay down bone matrix
  • Marrow spaces joint together forming a central regular cavity in the middle of diaphysis.
  • The microscopic structure of the developing endochondral bones is characterized by 5 overlapping zones:
    • The zone of resting cartilage is composed of typical hyaline cartilage and is farthest from the primary marrow cavity.
    • The zone of proliferation contains columns of flattened chondrocytes.
    • In the zone of hypertrophy, the chondrocytes in the columns are enlarged and rounded.
    • The zone of calcification is characterized by a more basophilic matrix. There is often a significant overlap between zones 3 and 4, which are sometimes referred to as a single zone of hypertrophy and calcification.
    • The zone of ossification borders directly on the primary marrow cavity. It is characterized by intensely acidophilic osteoid, osteocytes within the bone matrix, and a monolayer of basophilic osteoblasts.

K. Matsuo and N. Irie, “Osteoclast-osteoblast communication,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 473, no. 2, pp. 2

10 Dangerous things you should stop doing to live healthy

Dangerous things you should stop doing For most people albeit all of us it is just about living life not taking into accounts little things which can kill us We

Why you must build a hedge around your marriage

BUILD A HEDGE AROUND YOUR MARRIAGE One question that we must ask ourselves is what is a hedge A hedge according to the free dictionary is a fence formed by

NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

Following the global outbreak of the deadly corona virus, which has threatened the Iives of people in the world including our beloved country Nigeria. On the 18th March 2020, there was a general order for the lock down of all NYSC Orientation camp across the Nation. It was not so happy a thing to the Batch A Stream 1 corps members who were asked to vacate the camp immediately. Although they corps members were posted to their various place of primary assignment, the measures taken was to help limit the possible avenue for the spread of the virus.

As the third line in the first stanza of the NYSC anthem quotes “Under the sun or in the rain”. The Platoon 6 Batch A stream 1 corps members deployed to Nasarawa State have continued their Orientation course in another form. They have fortified its WhatsApp platform with Guiding Principles to help bring discipline and sanity amongst them. They have an Outline of Programs that runs for 9hours daily. All these are of the vision to help build up their Human Capacity  towards Nation’s building.

In an interview with the Platoon leader, in the person of Franklyn Nwosu, who is a Philosophy graduate from the prestigious Claretian Institute of Philosophy Nekede, Owerri, Imo State. He said the platoon has its motto as “We are the best to serve Nigeria” and have promised to lead the Platoon to the actualization of this both in camp and outside the camp for the Nation building.

In his words of acknowledgement, he thanked the President of the  Federal Republic of Nigeria, Muhammad Buhari, the Executive Governor of Nasarawa State Engr. Abdullahi Sule, the Minister of Youth & Sports Mr. Stanley Dare, the Director General of the NYSC Brig. Gen. S. Ibrahim, the Nasarawa State NYSC Coordinator Mr. Stephen Gabriel Dewan, The NYSC Keffi Camp Director Mr. Tomori Olabode Felix and all NYSC staff.

He appreciated the esteem efforts of the Nasarawa NYSC state coordinator, the camp Director and the platoon 6 officers whose morning advise & admonishment helped strengthen them to undertake this tax.

He went further to say that the corona virus will never be a barrier for corps members to serve their fatherland, Nigeria.

The Platoon Program manager, Diogu Coda a graduate of Criminology/Psychology from Nasarawa State University spoke to us in an explanation on how the platoon has been undergoing the Online Orientation Courses which are inline with the NYSC SCHEME since 23rd March 2020. In his Explanations he said;

1. Business Monday

The business Monday is an opportunity created for the members of the platoon who have legit businesses doing to advertise their products or business and make presentations for people to patronize or make referrals. The aim of this program is to help boost and patronize our various handworks.

2. Tuesday Entrepreneurship Workshop

This program is held every Tuesday, and is anchored or moderated by the corps members who have entrepreneurship skills. Skills taught includes; Ankara Craft work, Fashion Designing, Catering services, Graphic designing, Mechanized Agriculture; Fish farming, poultry, Dog farm etc. We also have quiz/Brain teasers session and winners are awarded with airtime to their different networks. The aim of this program is for us to acquire a spirit of self reliance, developing skills for self employment. Anchors of this program are: Tamaraleyefa Blessing (Ankara craft), Jamiu Hammad Adelani (Fish farming), Diogu Coda (Dog Farming), Fadiyimu Stella (Fashion Designing), Asade George (Graphic designing), Ojone Julius (Catering services).

10 Beautiful Ways To Prevent Cheating In A Relationship

Cheating in Relationship Marriage Cheating occurs always in most every relationship marriage In fact it is more rampant between partners in a relationship than married couples This is because marriage

Chika Ike, Nollywood Actress Displays Big Butts

Chika Ike Gets Big Butt A Nollywood actress producer and businesswoman Chika Ike has reacted on the trending gist that she went through plastic surgery so as to have a

3. Wednesday (Symposium/ Lectures)

So far we have discussed various topics during the cause of this program like; Corona Virus in Nigeria; Science & Religion the way forward, Impact on Nasarawa state; help build Nigeria, Automation & Robotics; Threat or a prompt to poverty eradication?, 5G Network; Good or Bad for Nigeria development. The aim of this program is to find a way to contribute to the growth of the National economy and make corp members amenable for national Interest. Anchors are: Daniel Adeniran, Nkem Happiness, Diogu Coda, Sunday Ojo.

4. Thursday (Battle of the Sexes)

This is a reality show, as we have discussed so far many contemporary issues as it concerns the both sexes like; Causes and effect of Matrimonial Abuse, Sexual assault/ Molestation; who is to be blamed?, Male superiority and female inferiority. The aim of this program is to help the both sexes to know each other well for a harmonious and habitable society. Anchors are: Salako Bolaji, Fesobi Deborah, Nwosu Franklyn, Ojone Julius.

5. Friday (TGIF Breakout Session)

There are five (5) Sessions, the platoon breaks out each person joins a session with a topic of interest;  Zero Hunger, No Poverty, Quality education, Good Health and well being, Clean water & Sanitation. At the end, each session make a report back to the general platform. The aim of this program is to inculcate discipline, patriotic and loyal service to Nigeria in any situation we find ourselves. It is inform of the normal Community development Service (CDS) Program. Anchors are: Asade George, Nicholet Emeka, Zaniab Aliyu, Edet Bisbong.

6. Saturday (Intercultural Dialogue)

Many topics have been discussed and studied in this program like; Improving Nigerians unity through cultural understanding, Unity in diversity, one color one people. This program have given avenue for inter tribe Language, culture and tradition learning. The aim of this program is to develop a common tie amongst us and promote National unity and integration and to clear prejudice, bias and eliminate ignorance to have a first hand the similarities amongst the Nigerian ethnic groups.

7. Sunday (Social Night/ Feedback)

On this day the group has a liberal group for more socialization, making jokes and sharing funny experiences. Mostly, share camp experiences. As Socrates would say “An unexamined life is not worth living”, we also use this opportunity to make judgement over the program performance from the previous week to enable build and make better program the upper week.

The platoon leader, Franklyn Nwosu also uses this medium to call on other platoon leaders in their various capacity, try to Make this dream come to a reality, not letting the youths that have gone home to just remain relaxed and have nothing doing. They could use this opportunity to groom themselves also in line with what the NYSC has in mind for us and with this at hand we can truly impact positively to Nigeria.

Read Also:

Kisser and the Kissee - Love Story: Episode 2

Kisser and the Kissee Interesting Love Story Episode Two Why do men always see the woman s heart as something to toy with Why are men occupied with the mere

How to Discover Your Talents - Advanced Methods

Discover your Hidden Talents With these Advanced Methods How to Discover your Talents Ever wondered if you have talents at all Ever wondered if you are good at anything aside

Check Out 9 Most Embarrassing Photos Of Nigerian Celebrities That Broke Relationships

Most Embarrassing Photos Of Nigerian Celebrities We all Know that Celebrities seem to live a super entertaining life a Public life where all their actions make News headlines However there

Educational Policy, History and Its Relevance to Educational Practices

Educational Policy and its Relevance Different meanings have been given to the concept of policy by different scholars Most often than not the concept of policy is either used interchangeably

WhatsApp chat

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This

Share This

Share this post with your friends!

Share This

Share this post with your friends!