Having A High Sex Drive? Fix it with these Effective Remedies

Having A High Sex Drive? Fix it with these Effective Remedies

Fixing a High Sex Drive – Suggestive Remedies

 It is very normal to have a sex drive, but when it is very high, there seems to be a problem. Have you wondered why you have a high sex drive just sometimes? Do you think it is abnormal? Well, just relax, in this amazing article, there are many effective remedies on how you can fix your high sex drive.


A person who has extremely frequent or a suddenly increased sex drive may be experiencing hypersexuality, while the opposite condition is hyposexuality. A person may have a desire for sex, but not have the opportunity to act on that desire, or may on personal, moral, or religious reasons refrain from acting on the urge. A high sex drive potentially becomes a problem when it results in sexual activity that feels out of control, such as sexual compulsion. Sex drive is also known as libido and it is a person’s overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.  Libido is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors.

Biologically, the sex hormones and associated neurotransmitters that act upon the nucleus accumbens (primarily testosterone and dopamine, respectively) regulate libido in humans. Social factors, such as work and family, and internal psychological factors, such as personality and stress, can affect libido. Libido can also be affected by medical conditions. Psychologically, a person’s urge can be repressed or sublimated. Conversely, a person can engage in sexual activity without an actual desire for it. Multiple factors affect human sex drive, including irritation, illness, pregnancy, and others.

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When is a High Sex drive a problem?

A high sex drive usually isn’t a problem if you do not feel ruled by your sexual urges or thoughts. If you have a high sex drive and are having all the satisfying sex you crave, then you might actually be rather pleased with it!

But you may struggle with your high sex drive if you experience any of the following:

✔ You are not able to achieve satisfaction, no matter how much sex or masturbation you have.

✔ You are not able to get the amount or type of sex you desire.

✔ You are troubled or shamed by persistent fantasies.

✔ You regularly sacrifice work, social, or sleep time for your sexual exploits.

✔ You have sore genitals from excessive sex or masturbation.

✔ You habitually seek out unsatisfactory or risky sexual exploits.

✔ You feel bad that your pursuit of sexual satisfaction prevents you from having a relationship.

How can I fix my high sex drive?

Dealing with an unwanted sex drive can be difficult and lead to uncomfortable feelings and situations. If you’re looking for ways to escape urges at the moment

If you are concerned that you have an overly high sex drive and looking for ways to escape the urges and fix it right, try the following tips:

  1. Talk about it

Whatever the cause, if you are not happy with your sex life, talking therapy can help you offload, explore thoughts, feelings, experiences and desires around sex, love, relationships, and beyond. Establishing what you want from your life in general and then working out realistic ways to get it can help you feel more in control and less at the mercy of your urges.

  1. Interrupt your urges

When I ask sexually compulsive clients if they have ever not acted on a sexual urge – whether it’s masturbating in the office loos or booking an appointment with a sex worker — they often say no. Understanding that sexual urges – much like cravings for cigarettes or cake – do pass if un-fuelled by yearning thoughts or actions, can be a revelation.

If you become aroused and you want to not act on your urges, here are a few things you can do:

✔  Try mental gymnastics, for example, practice your 26 times table.

✔  Focus on something else; search your surroundings for squares or anything blue.

✔ Refer to a list you’ve made about how great your partner is, or what you will gain from not acting out.

✔   The benefits of using a sex toy are numerous including keeping kegel muscles toned and your libido fixed. You could sex toys like a pipedream to spice up your relationship and maintain your sex drive.

  1. Channel your energy

Some people derive great relief, pleasure, and pride from channeling their sexual energy into other things. This could mean doing something creative, physical, thrilling, or spiritual. Popular pursuits include long-distance running, dancing, learning the guitar, abseiling, DIY, cooking, yoga, and Tantra.

  1. Work on finding satisfying sex

High sex drives can be particularly tormenting for those who struggle to find sexual partners. I help such clients explore ways to build confidence, improve how they relate to others (including being open, curious and complimentary without seeming creepy), discover ways to meet possible sexual partners — for example online, on courses, or at Meetup events — and learn ways to have sex with someone they might care about, which usually involves embracing the wonderful realities of non-pornified human nature.

Hook up sites, sex parties or sex professionals can help some people satisfy their urges but they aren’t always sustainable solutions for people with high sex drives. They don’t always guarantee sex – let alone satisfying sex. They may also go against the person’s moral compass, lead to overspending or preclude intimacy.

  1. Work through relationship issues

Some high sex drive people in monogamous relationships frequently beg their partner for sex. This is a very bad form. It’s not sexy and, whether or not they give in, can kill off whatever sexual feelings their partner has for them, as even tender affection is viewed as a hopeful route to sex.

When couples with mismatched libidos come to me, I ask them both what they wish their sex life would look like. Sometimes it’s helpful to schedule times to connect and be intimate. During these times they could choose to do things like go on a date, have a top half only make-out session, be naked without worrying about being aroused (maybe holding each other or having a bath), or having sex.

I’ve heard clients with higher libidos argue that they are allowed to have sex outside the relationship. While open relationships can work, it’s best when it’s seen as an exciting thing that both partners can participate in.

  1. Take something to lower your sexual urges

If your sexual urges are occupying your every waking thought and becoming problematic, there are a few things you can take to decrease your sex drive:

Anaphrodisiacs: Just as aphrodisiacs such as oysters or chocolate are said to enhance the libido, anaphrodisiacs are said to dull it. There are several food ingredients, herbs, and supplements that fall into this category including soy, liquorice, chaste berry, hops, and wild lettuce.

Antidepressants: Selective serotine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants and can cause the highest frequency of sexual dysfunction, followed by monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and then tricyclic antidepressants. Antidepressants can cause decreased sex drive, delayed or absent orgasm, and ejaculatory disturbances. Consequently, these same drugs are commonly prescribed to help men overcome premature ejaculation.

Change your medication: If your medication is causing you to feel more aroused than usual, it may be possible to change your medication or lower the dosage – enough to take the edge of the urges but still to help what whatever it is you are taking it for. Always seek medical advice before changing your medication.

  1. Take herbs

Herbs have long been used to help with physical, mental, and emotional problems. Chaste Tree Berry, also called Monk’s Pepper or Cloister Pepper, historically was used to help monks maintain their celibacy. Some people use licorice to reduce testosterone

  1. Drink tea:

Some teas can help with lowering testosterone and sex drive. Spearmint tea and licorice tea are herbal teas that can help reduce testosterone. Find a medicinal-grade tea and brew as indicated.

  1. Watch your fat intake.

Carefully watch your diet and your saturated fat intake. Saturated fat can positively affect libido and testosterone production. Get some blood tests to see where your cholesterol is at, and make some substitutions if need be.

  1. Distract yourself

If your sex drive is distracting you and you can’t focus on what you need to do, find a small distraction. Go on a walk, paint, read, or write. Put your attention to something else. Distract your mind or distract your body by focusing on other things.

  1. Exercise

If your body is tense, get moving. Go to the gym or exercise. Do some yoga or more vigorous exercise such as kickboxing. Moving your body can help you distract it for the moment. However, be mindful that exercise can increase testosterone production, so be careful in how often and how intense your workouts are.

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  1. Practice mindfulness

Mindfulness is a way to tune into your own bodily sensations. While you might turn off your mind for meditation, you want to focus it in mindfulness. If you’re focused mostly on your sexual organs, perform a body scan, and attend to each area of your body, from head to toe. Focus on your senses instead of your thoughts or sexual feelings.

  • Tune in to one sense at a time. For example, take a moment and really listen. Hear the birds chirp with a deep reflective thought and fully turn your attention to what sounds exist around you.

Use relaxation. Find some healthy outlets for stress, such as relaxation. Handling stress on a regular basis can help you cope with increasing sexual tensions and deal with them daily. Instead of letting tensions mount, practice relaxation for 30 minutes each day to help you deal with buildups of stress and by this seek for sleek satisfying toy objects.


Everybody has their standard libido. If your sex drive drops from that standard, you’re experiencing low libido. If your sex drive increases from that standard, you’re experiencing high libido. An out of control sexuality can also be hard for those around you. You may think you are fine, but your boss, your partner, or your mates might fear that you are spending too much time in the pursuit of sex. Either these people don’t understand you, or you are in denial about your problematic relationship with sex. While increased sexual desire is perfectly normal for young people experiencing hormonal surges, if you are older, a number of other factors can impact your sex drive. Your sexual behavior could be having a negative impact on other areas of your life, such as your health, relationships, work if not properly handled.


 Eric Berne, A Layman’s Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis (1976) p. 69 and 101

 Bala, Areeg; Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G. (2018-01-01). “Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: A Literature Review”. Sexual Medicine Reviews. 6 (1): 29–34

 Burrows, Lara J.; Basha, Maureen; Goldstein, Andrew T. (2012-09-01).  ‘’The Effects of HormonalContraceptives on Female Sexuality: A Review’’ The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

Reconceiving the second sex  Marcia Claire Inhorn – 2009.

3 Sex Secrets we keep from our Partners

3 Sex Secrets we keep from our Partners

Porn, Masturbation, and Faking Orgasm

Do you know that most love partners do strange things when they are alone? Have you ever wondered if your love partner has some sex secrets he or she keeps from you? Of course, in every relationship/marriage, there is always a sex secret from both partners. But, do not be worried, this interesting article will enlighten you on 3 Sex Secrets we keep from our partners, reasons for the secrets, and as well expose you to some educating implication of the sex secrets we keep from our love partners.

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Physical and emotional aspects of sexuality include bonds between individuals that are expressed through profound feelings or physical manifestations of love, trust, and care. Sexual lives are meant to be kept secret because it is a crucial aspect of human existence most especially in the contemporary society.

It is a fact that everyone does strange things when they’re alone; it’s totally normal as we rile on life. The display of some sexual behaviours trending today which includes pornography, masturbation, and faking orgasm, exists in the lives of singles and couples. An exposure to one’s sexual life causes more harm than good. It won’t be helpful to your partner in any way, so they don’t need to know about it. Exposing these three sexual behaviour leads to frustration and will be unsupportive and hurtful to your partner as in the case of married couples.

Porn as a Sex Secret

Pornography companies and websites seem to be the most visited among youths in this contemporary period. Millions of people visit websites because of one reason or the other especially when they are alone. But, it is not a condemning act as there are some benefits of watching porn, as well as demerits.

Porn is a pornographic work. Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including magazines, animation, writing, film, video, and video games. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors who engage in filmed sex acts. 

Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity laws, censored or made illegal. Such grounds, and even the definition of pornography, have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts.

Benefits of Pornography

  1. It relieves stress

Just like every other stress-relieving tactic, people tend to watch pornography just to relieve stress. Life can be stressful, and from my experience, owning a stress ball does not make the complicated twists and turns any easier to deal with. 

  1. It could benefit your relationship

Watching porn with your partner can open both of your minds to new sexual possibilities.

  1. Watching porn may decrease aggressive tendencies.

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The Demerits of pornography

  1. The guilt and mistrust about pornography can tear a marriage apart.
  2. Turning to pornography may cause your spouse to withdraw from the real relationship because of the instant gratification one receives from it.
  3. Pornography could make it difficult for one of the partners to view sex as a loving form of communication.

Masturbation as a Sex Secret

Masturbation is the self-stimulation of the genitals to achieve sexual arousal and pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm (sexual climax). It is commonly done by touching, stroking, or massaging the penis or clitoris until an orgasm is achieved. Some women also use stimulation of the vagina to masturbate or use “sex toys,” such as Lelo Sona.

Masturbation is a very common behavior, even among people who have a sex partner. Masturbation is the first sexual act experienced by most males and females. In young children, masturbation is a normal part of the growing child’s exploration of his or her body. Most people continue to masturbate in adulthood, and many do so throughout their lives.

Why Do People Masturbate?

In addition to feeling good, masturbation is a good way of relieving the sexual tension that can build up over time, especially for people without partners or whose partners are not willing or available for sex. Masturbation also is a safe sexual alternative for people who wish to avoid pregnancy and the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases.

It also is necessary when a man must give a semen sample for infertility testing or for sperm donation. When sexual dysfunction is present in an adult, masturbation may be prescribed by a sex therapist to allow a person to experience an orgasm (often in women) or to delay its arrival (often in men).

Is Masturbation Normal?

While it once was regarded as a perversion and a sign of a mental problem, masturbation now is regarded as a normal, healthy sexual activity that is pleasant, fulfilling, acceptable, and safe. It is a good way to experience sexual pleasure and can be done throughout life.

Masturbation is only considered a problem when it inhibits sexual activity with a partner, is done in public, or causes significant distress to the person. It may cause distress if it is done compulsively or interferes with daily life and activities.

Faking Orgasm as a Sex Secret

Women fake orgasms more frequently than men, with one survey finding that 26 percent of women fake an orgasm every time they have sex. Other studies have found that anywhere from 25 to 74% of women admit to having faked an orgasm at some point in their lives. This is more than the 25 percent of women who report consistently having an orgasm during coitus.

Women tend to achieve orgasm during intercourse less readily than men because most women require direct clitoral stimulation to achieve orgasm and not all sexual positions provide access to the clitoris, which often makes orgasms difficult to achieve for women. For women in heterosexual relationships, faking an orgasm can also be based on deference to the man, need for his approval, or feelings of shame or sexual inadequacy.

Orgasm is not always achieved easily during sexual activity and due to this effect, some women especially make use of sex toys like iOrgasm Oval and Pink Duo to remedy the situation. For both sexes, the condition of being unable to orgasm during sex is called anorgasmia; it can be caused by a variety of factors, including factors in one’s life such as stress, anxiety, depression, or fatigue, as well as factors related to the sex itself; including worry, guilt, fear of painful intercourse, fear of pregnancy, the undesirability of a partner, and the undesirability of a setting. It can also be caused by drug use, including alcohol and other substances, or side effects from prescription drugs

People can fake orgasms for a number of reasons, such as when their partner wants them to orgasm but they are unable, or when they desire to stop having sex but are not comfortable telling their partner directly, avoiding negative consequences, or for pleasing their partner.

So, then, dear ladies and gentlemen, feel the pleasure in the very marrow of your bones; share it fairly with your lover, say pleasant, naughty things in a while. And if Nature has withheld from you the sensation of pleasure, then teach your lips to lie and say you feel it all. Unhappy is the woman who feels no answering thrill. But, if you have to pretend, don’t betray yourself by over-acting. Let your movements and your eyes combine to deceive us, and, gasping, panting, complete the illusion.

People can also fake orgasms for reasons of display or presentation, such as during phone sex or in pornography. 

Feminists have asserted that women faking orgasms is a sign of male-centered sexuality; in a society that celebrates only male sexual pleasure, women may feel pressured to engage in acts that bring their male partners to orgasm but that do not provide them physical pleasure.

Evolutionary Perspective     

From an evolutionary perspective, females might fake orgasms in order to signal fidelity to a male partner, particularly if he is of low-genetic quality. If a female has sex with many partners (employing a polygamous mating strategy) her aim may be to secure benefits from multiple males, such as resources, whilst aiming to only reproduce with males of high genetic quality.

A true orgasm is known to increase the number of sperm carried to the uterus post-male orgasm (suggesting reproductive benefits) and has suggested pair-bonding benefits.


Sex is not limited in intercourse or physical contact; it is anything you do to yourself or someone else does to you that causes you to be sexually aroused. Sexual feeling or urge is natural. As we grow physically and mature the thought of sex and sexual feeling comes upon us naturally. Sexual urge is one of the first signs of maturity in young people.

At a point in all our lives, we begin to sense sexual realities in thought, within us and towards opposite sex4. It is a mysterious feeling i.e. strange, difficult to understand, and causing curiosity). Ever so often, what we see and hear around us (physical or pictorially) tends to arouse or stir wrong sexual feelings and drive within us. Unlike in the case of beast or animals, “man” tends to have a natural restraining capacity into unhealthy sexual pressure – and that to a large extent brings the consciousness of keeping our sex lives secret.

Having a healthy sex life means knowing what you do and don’t want to do sexually and being able to communicate that to your partners. Your partner should respect your boundaries, and you should respect theirs.


  1. Abbott D, Howarth J. Still off-limits, Staff views on supporting gay, lesbian, and bisexual people with intellectual disabilities to develop sexual and intimate relationships. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2007;20:116–26.
  2. Akers A, Gold MA, Borrero S, Santucci A, Schwarz EB. Providers’ perspectives on challenges to contraceptive counselling in primary care settings. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2010; 19(6):1163–70.
  3. Andrist L. Taking a sexual history and educating clients about safe sex. Nurs Clin North Am. 1988.
  4. Applications of human rights to reproductive and sexual health. New York (NY): United Nations Population Fund and Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; 2001. [28 January 2015].
  5. A qualitative review of psychosocial support interventions for young people living with HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. [28 January 2015].
  6. Atalla E. Physician’s attitudes regarding sexual dysfunction management’
  7. [dissertation]. Perth, Australia: Curtin University of Technology; 2009.
  8. Baldwin DS. Depression and sexual dysfunction. Br Med Bull. 2001;57:81–99.
  9. Baldwin DS, Foong T. Antidepressant drugs and sexual dysfunction. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:396–97.
  10. Benoit C, Millar A. Short report: dispelling myths and understanding realities: working conditions, health status, and exciting experiences of sex workers. Victoria, Canada: University of Victoria and Prostitutes Empowerment, Education and Resource Society; 2001.


Human Histology of the Bone

Human Histology of the Bone


Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that exhibits four types of cells: osteoclasts, bone lining cells, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Bone exerts important functions in the body, such as locomotion, support, and protection of soft tissues, calcium and phosphate storage, and harboring of bone marrow. Despite its inert appearance, bone is a highly dynamic organ that is continuously reabsorbed by osteoclasts and reformed by osteoblasts. There is evidence that osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of this bone remodeling process. This is introduction to the histology of the bone.

The function of bone lining cells is not well clear, but these cells seem to play an important role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation. Bone remodeling is a highly complex process by which old bone is replaced by new bone, in a cycle comprised of three phases:

  1. Initiation of bone resorption by osteoclasts,
  2. The transition (or reversal period) from resorption to new bone formation, and
  3. The bone formation by osteoblasts.

This process occurs due to coordinated actions of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells which together, form the temporary anatomical structure called basic multicellular unit (BMU). Normal bone remodeling is necessary for fracture healing and skeleton adaptation to mechanical use, as well as for calcium homeostasis.

On the other hand, an imbalance of bone resorption and formation results in several bone diseases. For example, excessive resorption by osteoclasts without the corresponding amount of nerformed bone by osteoblasts contributes to bone loss and osteoporosis, whereas the contrary may result in osteopetrosis.

Recent studies have shown that bone influences the activity of other organs and the bone is also influenced by other organs and systems of the body, providing new insights and evidencing the complexity and dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review we will address the current data about bone cells biology, bone matrix, and the factors that influence the bone remodeling process. Moreover, we will briefly discuss the role of estrogen on bone tissue under physiological and pathological conditions.

HIstology of Human bone.. structure, shapes, forms , types, functions
Shapes of Bones

Bone Cells


Osteoblasts are cuboidal cells that are located along the bone surface comprising 4–6% of the total resident bone cells and are largely known for their bone-forming function. These cells show morphological characteristics of protein-synthesizing cells, including abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and prominent Golgi apparatus, as well as various secretory vesicles. As polarized cells, the osteoblasts secrete the osteoid toward the bone matrix. Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

The commitment of MSC towards the osteoprogenitor lineage requires the expression of specific genes, following timely programmed steps, including the synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and members of the Wingless (Wnt) pathways. The expressions of Runt related transcription factors 2, Distal-less home box 5 (Dlx5), and osterix (Osx) are crucial for osteoblast differentiation.

Additionally, Runx2 is a master gene of osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the fact that Runx2-null mice are devoid of osteoblasts. Runx2 has demonstrated to upregulate osteoblast-related genes such as ColIA1, ALP, BSP, BGLAP, and OCN. Once a pool of osteoblast progenitors expressing Runx2and ColIA1 has been established during osteoblast differentiation, there is a proliferation phase.

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In this phase, osteoblast progenitors show alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and are considered preosteoblasts. There is evidence that other factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), microRNAs, and connexin 43 play important roles in osteoblast differentiation. FGF-2knockoutmice showed a decreased bone mass coupled to an increase of adipocytes in the bone marrow, indicating the participation of FGFs in the osteoblast differentiation. It has also been demonstrated that FGF-18 upregulates osteoblast differentiation in an autocrine mechanism.

MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression in many cell types, including osteoblasts, in which some microRNAs stimulate and others inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Connexin 43 is known to be the main connexin in bone. The mutation in the gene encoding connexin 43 impairs osteoblast differentiation and causes skeletal malformation in mice. The synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts occurs in two main steps: deposition of organic matrix and its subsequent mineralization.

In the first step, the osteoblasts secrete collagen proteins, mainly type I collagen, noncollagenous proteins (OCN, osteonectin, BSP II, and osteopontin), and proteoglycan including decorin and biglycan, which form the organic matrix. Thereafter, mineralization of bone matrix takes place into two phases: the vesicular and the fibrillar phases. The vesicular phase occurs when portions with a variable diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm, called matrix vesicles, are released from the apical membrane domain of the osteoblasts into the newly formed bone matrix in which they bind to proteoglycans and other organic components.

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Because of its negative charge, the sulfated proteoglycans immobilize calcium ions that are stored within the matrix vesicles. When osteoblasts secrete enzymes that degrade the proteoglycans, the calcium ions are released from the proteoglycans and cross the calcium channels presented in the matrix vesicle membrane. These channels are formed by proteins called annexins. On the other hand, phosphate-containing compounds are degraded by the ALP secreted by osteoblasts, releasing phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles. Then, the phosphate and calcium ions inside the vesicles nucleate, forming the hydroxyapatite crystals.

The fibrillar phase occurs when the supersaturation of calcium and phosphate ions inside the matrix vesicles leads to the rupture of these structures and the hydroxyapatite crystals spread to the surrounding matrix. Mature osteoblasts appear as a single layer of cuboidal cells containing abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and large Golgi complex. Some of these osteoblasts show cytoplasmic processes towards the bone matrix and reach the osteocyte processes. At this stage, the mature osteoblasts can undergo apoptosis or become osteocytes or bone lining cells.

Interestingly, round/ovoid structures containing dense bodies and TUNEL-positive structures have been observed inside osteoblast vacuoles. These findings suggest that besides professional phagocytes, osteoblasts are also able to engulf and degrade apoptotic bodies during alveolar bone formation. Bone Lining Cells. Bone lining cells are quiescent flat-shaped osteoblasts that cover the bone surfaces, where neither bone resorption nor bone formation occurs.

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These cells exhibit a thin and flat nuclear profile; its cytoplasm extends along the bone surface and displays few cytoplasmic organelles such as profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Some of these cells show processes extending into canaliculi, and gap junctions are also observed between adjacent bone lining cells and between these cells and osteocytes.

The secretory activity of bone lining cells depends on the bone physiological status, whereby these cells can reacquire their secretory activity, enhancing their size, and adopting a cuboidal appearance. Bone lining cells functions are not completely understood, but it has been shown that these cells prevent the direct interaction between osteoclasts and bone matrix, when bone resorption should not occur, and also participate in osteoclast differentiation, producing osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).

Moreover, the bone lining cells, together with other bone cells, are an important component of the BMU, an anatomical structure that is present during the bone remodeling cycle.

Types of Cartilage

  1. Hyaline Cartilage:
  2. Elastic cartilage
  3. Fibrocartilage

Hyaline Cartilage

They have identical form, covered by Perichondrium. They are Matrix formed by the Chondrocyte, the matrix is subdivided into two types:- Territorial and Interterritorial.

This is similar to hyaline cartilage. The matrix contain more elastic fibers as well as elastic fibers as well as type II collagen fibers.


This is different from Hyaline or Elastic. The chondrocytes are differentiated from fibrocytes.

Cartilage Growth

Cartilage grows by two different processes: Interstitial growth and Appositional growth

a. Interstitial growth: This involves the division of existing chondrocytes. It is important in the formation of the fetal skeleton and continues in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages.

b. Appositional growth: This involves the differentiation of chondroblasts and stem cells on the inner surface of the perichondrium into chondrocytes. It is responsible for increasing the girth of the cartilage masses.

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The Bone tissue is rich in blood supply. It is a type of connective tissue with calcified matrix.


  1. It supports and protects
  2. Has Bone marrow.
  3. It is an important storage site for calcium and other essential minerals.


  1. The outer surfaces
  2. Sharpey’s fibers
  3. The internal surfaces of bones are covered by a thin, condensed reticular connective tissue (endosteum) that contain bone (endosteum) that contains bone and blood, cell precursors.
  4. The endosteum lines the marrow cavity and sends extensions into the haversian canals.

Components of Bone:

Osteogeneic cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts. Organic and non-organic collagen type I fibers.

Osteogenic (Osteoprogenitor) cells

  • Mesenchymal stem cells, Small spindle-shaped cells with pale cytoplasm and ovoid nuclei.
  • Osteoblast precursors have sparse RER and Golgi complexes.
  • Osteoclast precursors have abundant free ribosomes and mitochondria.


Found in the periosteum and endosteum. They have large rounded or cuboidal cells, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, with deep basophilic cytoplasm, well-developed RER and Golgi; and eccentric nucleus. They synthesize and secrete organic components. Osteoblasts mature and are called osteocytes.


Theirs Cells are branched, smaller than osteoblasts, and not divide. They found in cavities in the bone matrix called lacunae. Processes (branches) extend into canaliculi in the calcified matrix. The cells are isolated. They Contact one another through gap junctions. Located near bone surfaces. They maintain bone matrix. The death of osteocytes results in bone resorption.


They lie on bony surfaces in Hawship’s lacunae. Have Large multinucleated cells. Acidophilic, cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and Acidophilic cytoplasm containing abundant lysosomes and mitochondria and well developed Golgi complex; and brush border of plasma-membrane facing the bone marrow.  Cells release acid, collagenase, and in other lytic enzymes into the compartments; these break down bone matrix and release minerals, a process called bone resorption, Ossification (Bone formation). The bone is formed from mesenchymal embryonic tissue by two ways:

  1. Intra-membranous ossification
  2. Endochondral ossification

Intra-Membranous Ossification:

Ossification center in the form of increased vascularity, condensation of mesenchymal cells. The mesenchymal cells osteogenic cells. The osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts; which synthesize the organic component of bone matrix (collagen, glycoprotein). The osteoblasts secrete an enzyme which stimulates calcium salts to the calcified matrix. The bone matrix grows in the membrane, vascular tissues differentiate into hematopoietic tissue (bone marrow). A layer of vascular mesenchyme forming periosteum.  The osteogenic stem cells in the periosteum differentiate to osteoblasts, which start to lay down or arrange bone lamellae (compact bone).

Endochondral Ossification:

  • Cartilage model: The embryonic mesenchymal cells -condensed. It is differentiated from chondroblasts, chondrocytes, and cartilage matrix.
  • Primary centers of ossification: Some changes have been developed. The Chondrocytes in the middle of the cartilage model enlarged, and calcium salts become to deposit around the lacunae. Chondrocytes die due to the prevention of nutrient diffusion through the calcified matrix, leaving empty spaces.
  • The perichondrium becomes highly vascular and active and changed to the periosteum, where the inner vascular osteogenic cells differentiate to osteoblasts.
  • The osteoblasts start to lay down a collar of compact bone around the shaft called sub-periosteal collar of bone.
  • The periosteum forms a periosteal bud, which is consists of capillaries, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
  • The vascular bud invades the subperiosteal bone by osteoclasts.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down.
  • The thin wall of the empty lacunae is broken down forming the primary bone marrow cavity.
  • As the periosteal bud invades bone and cartilage, the osteoblasts arrange themselves along the marrow spaces and start to lay down bone matrix
  • Marrow spaces joint together forming a central regular cavity in the middle of diaphysis.
  • The microscopic structure of the developing endochondral bones is characterized by 5 overlapping zones:
    • The zone of resting cartilage is composed of typical hyaline cartilage and is farthest from the primary marrow cavity.
    • The zone of proliferation contains columns of flattened chondrocytes.
    • In the zone of hypertrophy, the chondrocytes in the columns are enlarged and rounded.
    • The zone of calcification is characterized by a more basophilic matrix. There is often a significant overlap between zones 3 and 4, which are sometimes referred to as a single zone of hypertrophy and calcification.
    • The zone of ossification borders directly on the primary marrow cavity. It is characterized by intensely acidophilic osteoid, osteocytes within the bone matrix, and a monolayer of basophilic osteoblasts.

K. Matsuo and N. Irie, “Osteoclast-osteoblast communication,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 473, no. 2, pp. 2

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NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

NYSC takes new shape as Corp members start online Orientation Courses

Following the global outbreak of the deadly corona virus, which has threatened the Iives of people in the world including our beloved country Nigeria. On the 18th March 2020, there was a general order for the lock down of all NYSC Orientation camp across the Nation. It was not so happy a thing to the Batch A Stream 1 corps members who were asked to vacate the camp immediately. Although they corps members were posted to their various place of primary assignment, the measures taken was to help limit the possible avenue for the spread of the virus.

As the third line in the first stanza of the NYSC anthem quotes “Under the sun or in the rain”. The Platoon 6 Batch A stream 1 corps members deployed to Nasarawa State have continued their Orientation course in another form. They have fortified its WhatsApp platform with Guiding Principles to help bring discipline and sanity amongst them. They have an Outline of Programs that runs for 9hours daily. All these are of the vision to help build up their Human Capacity  towards Nation’s building.

In an interview with the Platoon leader, in the person of Franklyn Nwosu, who is a Philosophy graduate from the prestigious Claretian Institute of Philosophy Nekede, Owerri, Imo State. He said the platoon has its motto as “We are the best to serve Nigeria” and have promised to lead the Platoon to the actualization of this both in camp and outside the camp for the Nation building.

In his words of acknowledgement, he thanked the President of the  Federal Republic of Nigeria, Muhammad Buhari, the Executive Governor of Nasarawa State Engr. Abdullahi Sule, the Minister of Youth & Sports Mr. Stanley Dare, the Director General of the NYSC Brig. Gen. S. Ibrahim, the Nasarawa State NYSC Coordinator Mr. Stephen Gabriel Dewan, The NYSC Keffi Camp Director Mr. Tomori Olabode Felix and all NYSC staff.

He appreciated the esteem efforts of the Nasarawa NYSC state coordinator, the camp Director and the platoon 6 officers whose morning advise & admonishment helped strengthen them to undertake this tax.

He went further to say that the corona virus will never be a barrier for corps members to serve their fatherland, Nigeria.

The Platoon Program manager, Diogu Coda a graduate of Criminology/Psychology from Nasarawa State University spoke to us in an explanation on how the platoon has been undergoing the Online Orientation Courses which are inline with the NYSC SCHEME since 23rd March 2020. In his Explanations he said;

1. Business Monday

The business Monday is an opportunity created for the members of the platoon who have legit businesses doing to advertise their products or business and make presentations for people to patronize or make referrals. The aim of this program is to help boost and patronize our various handworks.

2. Tuesday Entrepreneurship Workshop

This program is held every Tuesday, and is anchored or moderated by the corps members who have entrepreneurship skills. Skills taught includes; Ankara Craft work, Fashion Designing, Catering services, Graphic designing, Mechanized Agriculture; Fish farming, poultry, Dog farm etc. We also have quiz/Brain teasers session and winners are awarded with airtime to their different networks. The aim of this program is for us to acquire a spirit of self reliance, developing skills for self employment. Anchors of this program are: Tamaraleyefa Blessing (Ankara craft), Jamiu Hammad Adelani (Fish farming), Diogu Coda (Dog Farming), Fadiyimu Stella (Fashion Designing), Asade George (Graphic designing), Ojone Julius (Catering services).

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3. Wednesday (Symposium/ Lectures)

So far we have discussed various topics during the cause of this program like; Corona Virus in Nigeria; Science & Religion the way forward, Impact on Nasarawa state; help build Nigeria, Automation & Robotics; Threat or a prompt to poverty eradication?, 5G Network; Good or Bad for Nigeria development. The aim of this program is to find a way to contribute to the growth of the National economy and make corp members amenable for national Interest. Anchors are: Daniel Adeniran, Nkem Happiness, Diogu Coda, Sunday Ojo.

4. Thursday (Battle of the Sexes)

This is a reality show, as we have discussed so far many contemporary issues as it concerns the both sexes like; Causes and effect of Matrimonial Abuse, Sexual assault/ Molestation; who is to be blamed?, Male superiority and female inferiority. The aim of this program is to help the both sexes to know each other well for a harmonious and habitable society. Anchors are: Salako Bolaji, Fesobi Deborah, Nwosu Franklyn, Ojone Julius.

5. Friday (TGIF Breakout Session)

There are five (5) Sessions, the platoon breaks out each person joins a session with a topic of interest;  Zero Hunger, No Poverty, Quality education, Good Health and well being, Clean water & Sanitation. At the end, each session make a report back to the general platform. The aim of this program is to inculcate discipline, patriotic and loyal service to Nigeria in any situation we find ourselves. It is inform of the normal Community development Service (CDS) Program. Anchors are: Asade George, Nicholet Emeka, Zaniab Aliyu, Edet Bisbong.

6. Saturday (Intercultural Dialogue)

Many topics have been discussed and studied in this program like; Improving Nigerians unity through cultural understanding, Unity in diversity, one color one people. This program have given avenue for inter tribe Language, culture and tradition learning. The aim of this program is to develop a common tie amongst us and promote National unity and integration and to clear prejudice, bias and eliminate ignorance to have a first hand the similarities amongst the Nigerian ethnic groups.

7. Sunday (Social Night/ Feedback)

On this day the group has a liberal group for more socialization, making jokes and sharing funny experiences. Mostly, share camp experiences. As Socrates would say “An unexamined life is not worth living”, we also use this opportunity to make judgement over the program performance from the previous week to enable build and make better program the upper week.

The platoon leader, Franklyn Nwosu also uses this medium to call on other platoon leaders in their various capacity, try to Make this dream come to a reality, not letting the youths that have gone home to just remain relaxed and have nothing doing. They could use this opportunity to groom themselves also in line with what the NYSC has in mind for us and with this at hand we can truly impact positively to Nigeria.

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Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Covid-19 & 5G Network: A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

Globally, there has been a terrific uproar among humans about the emergence of 5G Network and its mysterious connection with the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and Antichrist. A lot has been said and discussed about this development. But, in this wonderful article, there will be an intensive, educational and engaging discourse on Covid-19 & 5G Network, how they are connected, the truth behind the development, the need, relevance, importance, function, role and implication of 5G Network to the global and contemporary society.

Corona Virus

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 Coronavirus pandemic. 

Common symptoms include fevercough and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle paindiarrhoeasore throatloss of smell and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 6 April 2020, more than 1,280,000cases of have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in more than 70,500 deaths. More than 270,000 people have recovered.

The 5G Network

5G is a new kind of network: a platform for innovations that will not only enhances today’s mobile broadband services but will also expand mobile networks to support a vast diversity of devices and services and connect new industries with improved performance, efficiency, and cost. 5G will redefine a broad range of industries with connected services from retail to education, transportation to entertainment, and everything in between. We see 5G as technology as transformative as the automobile and electricity.

 In general, 5G use cases can be broadly categorized into three main types of connected services:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband: 5G will not only make our smartphones better, but it will also usher in new immersive experiences, such as VR and AR, with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and cost-per-bit.
  • Mission-Critical communications: 5G will enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable/available, low latency links—such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.
  • Massive Internet of Things: 5G will seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power and mobility to provide extremely lean/low-cost solutions.

The Need, Importance, Relevance & Implication of 5G Network

Global Importance

The spectrum used for mobile communications is becoming congested. Current networks cannot always meet consumer demands for data. During periods of heavy use, consumers may experience slow speeds, unstable connections, delays, or loss of service. The effects can range from annoyances like a streaming movie freezing to life-threatening transmission delays between first responders in an emergency.

Importance on Economy, Technology and Business

The demand for data will continue to grow as the number of devices connected to the internet grows. The number of smartphone users in the United States has increased from nearly 63 million in 2010 to an estimated 238 million in 2018. In 2018 there were 17.8 billion connected devices globally, 7 billion of which were connected devices such as smart home equipment. By 2025 the total number of connected devices is projected to exceed 34 billion.

Importance on Industries as related to Business

Industries and consumers will rely on 5G networks to power the devices and transmit the data that drive their daily activities. They will need networks that can provide constant connections, minimal lag times, increased bandwidth to access and share data, and the ability to quickly compile and compute data.

Importance on the Healthcare Sector

In the health care sector, 5G could enable services such as remote patient monitoring, consultation, and even remote surgery. In transportation, 5G will be the backbone that autonomous vehicles rely on. A 2017 study from Deloitte estimated, “self-driving cars enabled by wireless connectivity could reduce emissions by 40-90%, travel times by nearly 40% and delays by 20%.” Before every pandemic of the last 150 years, there was a quantum leap in the electrification of the Earth.

The Conspiracy Theory on Covid-19 & 5G Network

While a conspiracy theory might be taken to mean any explanation of an event or situation involving a conspiracy, in popular usage (as opposed to technical legal usage) the term carries the pejorative connotation that the appeal to a conspiracy is implausible and based on prejudice or insufficient evidence.

Conspiracy theories resist falsification and are reinforced by circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy and an absence of evidence for it are re-interpreted as evidence of its truth, whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved.

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Research suggests that conspiracist ideation belief in conspiracy theories can be psychologically harmful or pathological and that it is highly correlated with psychological projectionparanoia and Machiavellianism.

In the thesis statement of a YouTube video with the innocuous title “Dr. Thomas Cowan, M.D. Discusses the Coronavirus.” The 10-minute video features a man lecturing in front of a whiteboard. It looks like any other low-budget conference video, but that thesis—that pandemics are linked to the “electrification” of the Earth—got certain people’s attention. The video, which was posted March 18, has now been watched more than 660,000 times and has inspired a rather curious, rather dangerous conspiracy theory that the New 5G mobile networks are causing the spread of COVID-19.

5G mobile networks promise faster transmission speeds and lower latency. They’ve been the centrepiece of commercials from various mobile carriers, and they have become a battleground for technological dominance between the United States and China. In 2019, the Trump administration announced their plan for “winning the race” for 5G, and tech sources bemoaned that the United States had fallen behind China in 5G development. Some of the first 5G networks were activated in 2019, and that newness is how 5G somehow got linked to COVID-19 in some people’s minds.

But while the circumstances of this specific conspiracy are unique, the links between mobile networks and disease are a prime example of how history repeats itself. Almost every new wireless infrastructure gets linked to disease in one form or another.

A Reproach to the Conspiracy Theory

There seems to be a high level of disagreement to claims that there is a link between the 5G network, Coronavirus and anti-Christ. For the past few days, popular pastors and politicians have found a way to link the 5G network with spiritual things and Coronavirus epidemic.

Recall that Oyakhilome, a Nigerian Pastor, told his members in a sermon that the 5G was part of the new world order  where some figures of authority in the world were trying to build a religion, economy and government for the entire universe.Quoting Revelation Chapter 13, he said there is no need for a vaccine, adding that these are part of the Antichrist’s plan for a new world order.

However, Ashimolowo, another Nigerian Clergyman,  countered Oyakilome’s statement, explaining that there was no correlation between 5G and end-time signs.

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Mathew Ashimolowo warned Christians not to join Christian leaders in promoting conspiracy theories. According to him, all those claims were conspiracy theories that had nothing to do with the anti-Christ. He maintained that COVID-19 was a pandemic and must be dealt with as such.

“If coronavirus is caused by 5G, why is it in his village that does not have a 5G?

“It has always been the nature of Christian leaders to plant fear in their members whenever there was going to be a major world occurrence. The church should be more concerned about preparing their members for the Second Coming of the Lord instead of condemning a major technological breakthrough.

It’s fake news to associate 5G to coronavirus.

COVID-19 AND ISOLATION: Leprosy as a case study

Leprosy was the scourge of the ancient world. Nothing evoked more fear, more dread, or more revulsion than the sight of these walking dead. That is what a leper was called, a walking dead man. The smell of his decaying flesh would announce his coming long before the tattered scraps of his clothing would be seen, or his raspy “Unclean! Unclean!” announcement he was required to declare, could be heard. The stumbling shuffle of toeless feet, the wandering of sightless eyes and the moan of a cheek less mouth, all pointed to Leprosy, this unseen attacker that slowly destroyed human bodies, and made the individual an untouchable to society.

Leprosy is a vivid and graphic physical picture of the spiritual defilement of sin. Sin is ugly, loathsome, incurable, and contaminating; it separates men from God and makes them outcasts. The instructions given to the priests in Leviticus 13 help us understand the nature of sin: Sin is inside us, deeper than the skin (Leviticus 13:3); sin also spreads (Leviticus 13:8); sin always defiles.

Evaluation and Conclusion

I urge each and every one of us to discard this concept and idea of always reconciling societal issues, necessary human conditions and experience with Religion. The Christianity we practice today should display an exemplary with the teachings of Christ and religious leaders should focus on the preparation of their members to embrace the second coming of our Lord Christ rather than promoting fake propaganda.

I keep on asking the world this question; The Christianity we practice today is it the same Christianity that the followers of Christ practiced and they were called Christ-like people in Antioch of Pisidia? Why do we always link everything to religion! Few years back Ebola was a pandemic disease that faced some part of the world, Africa precisely but through God’s intervention it came to pass.

During the time of Christ, Leprosy disease was also a threat to humanity but when the untouchable is touched by Jesus (cf. Leviticus 13:42), “Immediately the leprosy left him and he was cured.” ‘‘They were tempted to put their security in their own possessions and in their political alliances with other nations rather than in God. Hosea called his people to return to God to receive pardon, healing, and restoration. God does not abandon us; God goes with us, even now in this time of trial and testing.

In this moment, it is important for us to anchor our hearts in the hope that we have in Jesus Christ and reconcile with God seeking for forgiveness of sins. Now is the time to intensify our prayers and sacrifices for the love of God and the love of our neighbour.

Update: The America and Iran Crisis – World War III Looming

Update: The America and Iran Crisis – World War III Looming

World War III Looming: The American – Iran Saga

Tension has seriously gone high as there has been series of predictions and speculations of another impending World War of which America and Iran has been in the center of the picture, as the result of the killing of the Iran Major General Qasem Soleimani. – America and Iran Crisis –

General Soleimani was killed on 3rd January 2020 around 01:00 am.1 by the American MQ-9 Reap drone,2 which was authorized by the American President, Donald Trump who claims that the airstrike was ordered to stop a war.

Furthermore, President Trump maintained that the justification to the airstrike was due to the fact that, Qasem Soleimani was plotting imminent and sinister attacks on American diplomats and Military Personnel.3

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Donald Trump claims that he was caught in the act as reported by the headquarters of the US department of defense. Trump, turning to his tweeter handle on Friday, stressed that “Soleimani had killed or badly wounded thousands of Americans… And was plotting to kill many more and should have been taken out many years ago… While Iran will never be able to properly admit it, Soleimani was both hated and feared within the country.”4

However, there has been series of events that led to the killing of Qasem Soleimani. On the 13th of April 2017, world news Reuters reported that the United States, on Thursday, sanctioned Sohrab Soleimani, the brother of the grand commander of Iran’s revolutionary Guards General Qasen Soleimani. 

White House spokesman, Sean Spicer, told a press briefing, “the sanctions against Human Rights abusers in Iran’s prisons comes at a time when Iran continues to unjustly detain various foreigners, including U. S citizens “.5

Qasem Soleimani was also listed by U. S government as a known terrorist, which prohibits U.S Citizens from doing any form of business with him. This was made by the office of the spokesman Washington, DC October 25th 2007: “the treasury department also designated the IRGC (Iranian revolutionary Guard Corps) Quds Force IRGC – QF under E.O 13224 for aiding and providing Material support to the Taliban and Other terrorist Organizations, and Iran’s state – owned Bank Saderat as a terrorist financier.”6

For financing military actions in Syria, providing support for terrorism in the region, was sanctioned by the United States department of the  treasury on 13th November 2018, an Iraqi military leader named Shibl Muhsin Ubayd Al-Zaydi and others who allegedly were acting on Qasem Soleimani‘s behalf.7

The United State President, Donald Trump, said that the White House may discuss releasing the surveillance intelligence on Soleimani.8 The Iran government in response to the death of General Qasem Soleimani, has labelled the American airstrike, as an act of terrorism and war.  And the prime minister of Iran has vowed that “hash revenge awaits the American Government and the White House9 and has promised to target various American assets in Iran.

Many countries have reacted to the American airstrike.  Syria of course has harshly condemned the US actions, calling it “A treacherous American criminal aggression”. Russia another world power has also condemned the strike and says that American decision will only increase tensions throughout the Middle East.

However, China which is a close ally of Iran and an opponent of the U. S presence in Iraq condemns the use of force in international relations. However, countries like Israel, Germany, Britain has given a positive view of the American airstrike on Soleimani but has urged cautions and restraints.10

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Receiving the revenge threats by Iran’s Supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the U.S president on a tweet has strongly maintained that the American government would strike 52 sites in Iran, if they should retaliate or cause any harm to any American citizen or official.  The number 52 according to the U.S presidency, represents the 52 American hostages taken by Iran many years ago.11

Nevertheless, tension goes high as America intensifies it’s security force after the recent attack on the American Embassy in Iran.  This leads to the question begging for an answer, if the Iran would respond to their threats of war and possible World War III.

-America and Iran Crisis-


  1. Wikipedia, “Qasem Soleimani,”.
  2. Strong Steinbuch, “The Events that led to US killing of Iranian Gently. Qassem Soleimani.
  3. Nytimes,”the killing of Gen.Qassm Suleimani: what we know since the U.S. Airstrike.
  4. BBC, “Warm Soleimani : US kills top Iranian general in Baghdad air Strike.
  5. Reuters, “U. S sanctions brother of Iran’s Questions Force Commander : White House.
  6. U. S Department of State Archive, “Designation of Iranian Entitles and individual for Proliferation Activities and support for Terrorism.
  7. Treasury Sanctions Keys Hizballah, IRGC-QF Network in Iraq.
  8. CBS News, “Qassem Soleimani, top Iranian Military Commander, killed in U. S airstrike in Baghdad; Iran vows revenge and thousands mourn.
  9. CNN, “Uproar and Consequences mount For Trump after Soleimani killing”.
  10. Euronews, “Worldreacts to killing of Iran’s Qassem.
  11. VOA,  “US, Iran Trade threats following Iran Generals killing.

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